*For those looking for the Beholdmyswarthyface Encyclopedia of Modern Japan, please click here. Due to the unexpectedly large size of the project, we had to divide it into three sections, Part One, Part Two, and Part Three.
2005, Waseda Seminar
中島敦 (1909-1942). 「光と風と夢」「斗南先生」
森鴎外’s サフロン (1915).
三島’s 能 plays
Takeda Taiun 武田泰淳 (1912-1976). China war. にせ札つかいの。。」”Hikarigoke.” “mamushi no sue.”「死をめぐる風景」.
夢野久作 (1889-1939). 「瓶詰地獄」
Yamada Eimi 「蝶々の纏足」
千葉先生’s essay on 夢の浮橋.
白井KYŌJI (1889-1980): 富士に立つ影.
Shōshōshigemoto no haha
Kōda Rohan “Renkanki”
高見順の「故旧忘れ得べき」 Ms. Hayter
2005, Toeda Seminar
夢野久作 (1889-1936): ドグラマグラ；瓶詰め地獄
山本有三 Yamamoto Yūzō (1887-1974):路傍の石.
武田泰淳 Takeda Taijun 1912-1976: China warまむしのすえ(’47),ひかりごけ1954。
尾崎翠 Ozaki Midori
Ms. Hayter’s presentation 高見順の『故旧忘れ得べき』、あるいは表象の政治性
See: Fredric Jameson, James Fujii, Eric Cazdyn, Anthony Easthope, Peter Brookes, Neil Larsen, Nakamura Shinichirō, Fujita Shōzo, 本田春五、林房雄（ふさお）、亀井勝一郎、亀井秀雄、柄谷行人
The floating world in Japanese fiction / Howard Hibbett. Imprint London : Oxford University Press, c1959
Japanese fiction -- Edo period, 1600-1868 -- History and criticism
Dawn to the West : Japanese literature of the modern era / Donald Keene. Imprint New York : Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1984.
岩波 classics library, East and West classics, 1927—
1. Coming of Enlightenment
2. Writing in Chinese of Meiji
3. Age of Translation
4. Meiji Political Novel
5. Tsubouchi Shōyō and Futabatei Shimei
6. Kōyō and Kenyūsha
7. Kōda Rohan
8. Higuchi Ichiyō
9. Kitamura Tōkoku and Romanticism
10. Izumi Kyōka
Ch 10: Izumi Kyōka 泉鏡花 (1837-1939)
“supreme ‘romanticist’ of Meiji literature,” attacked by Naturalists as “escapist.” More then the visible; master of style; b. kanazawa, but master of Edo style.
Kuro Yuri 黒百合 (1899)
Yushima Mōde 湯島詣で (Worship at Yushima), 1899. most realistic; best equipped for this.
Influences: apprentice under Ozaki; “Confessions of Love” by Ozaki Kōyō and other 研友社 writers, and 戯作。
荒野聖 Kōya hijiri, Saint of Kōya, 1900. captivating enchantress. Fantasy, grotesque.
婦系図 Onna keizu, 1907-8. most popular.
Giketsu kyōketsu, 1894; lawyer, geisha story. Implausible. Eyebrow details.
Yakō junsa 夜行巡査, 1895. 観念小説。Far-fetched. Hatto, dutiful patrolman.
Kaijō hatsuden, 1896. “Dispatches from Hai-ching. Red cross, war.
注文帳. 1901. one of finest.
外科室 Gekashitsu. Operating Room, 1895. pop melodrama.
天守物語 Tenshumonogatari. 1917.
Uta Andon 唄行灯 1910. perhaps finest.
Baishoku kamo nanban 陪食鴨南蛮? 1920.
Sankai hyōbanki. 1920.
Mayu kakushi norei. 1924.
According to Shinoda: Kafū and Kyōka the only Meiji writers who knew how to structure a novel (217).
12. Natsume Sōseki
13. Mori Ōgai
14. Nagai Kafū
On “tsuyu no atosaki” (1931) “before and after the rains”
“one of finest.” Kimie, prostitute kiyooka, ironic self-portrait.
“last of gesaku writers.” “chronicler of disappearing Tokyo” (431-2).
15. Shirakaba ha
16. I Novel
Tayama Katai’s 布団。鴎外’s 舞姫 (Ich roman).
Chikamatsu Shūkō’s 近松秋江 (1876-1944) 「疑惑」”Suspicions” (1913) predecessor, according to Hirai Ken.
Chinese-Japanese tradition of truth, sincerity. Murasaki in hell, according to later scholars, for writing fiction. (p. 515).
Roman a clef: 政宗白鳥 Masamune Hakuchō (1879-1962)’s “Kōryūroku,” literary circles. Novel of ideas, 伊藤整。
中村むらお (1886-1949). Essay: 本格小説と心境小説, 1924. 心境, “uniquely Jap art” (510).
久米正雄 Kume Masao (1891-1952). Jan 1925 essay 「私小説と心境説」champions I novel.
佐藤春夫, critical of I novelists. “not an admirer” (512).
Group ONE “I” novelists— Naturalist tradition:
portray self in “least attractive light . . . shiftless, dissolute, incapable of writing.” Murakami Haruki from this. Extreme examples:
葛西善蔵 Kasai Zenzō (1887-1927).
嘉村磯田 Kamura Isota (1897-1933).
Masochistic self-portrayal. Spares nothing. Miserable. Not well-crafted. Flashback only device. Virgin-obsessed. Truth at all costs. “badly educated rustic.” 業苦” (1928).
Group TWO: 心境 novelists, 志賀直哉: sublimate ordinary experience.
牧野信一 Makino Shin’ichi (1896-1936). Hatred for mother, father. 「ゼーロン」1931.
宇野浩二 Uno Kōji (1891-1961). “Kura no naka” (1919); “Yume o miru heya (rents room for trysts).” Long garrulous sentences.
滝井孝作 Takii Kōsaku (1894-1984). Haiku poet, novelist, marriage to hooker.
尾崎一雄 Ozaki Kazuo (1899-1983). Life-long illness. Boring, tragic awareness of death at end. “nonki megane” 1933. student at Waseda under father.
POETRY OF I NOVEL
梶井基次郎 Kajii Motojirō (1901-1932). 「レモン」
上林暁 Kambayashi Akatsuki (1902-1980). 200 stories, manner of I novel. 3 types: Shikoku homeland stories; madness-of-wife stories; sacrifice of younger sister stories. Illness and poverty. Masochistic, self-mockery. 「野」zuihitsu-style story. ‘St. John’s Hospital” (1946, best known).
18. Proletariat Lit of 20s
19. Modernism and Foreign Influence
T.J. omitted much of own work from 1915-1927 for 1930 zenshū.
Sources used by Keene: Bungei tokuhon tanizaki; Nakamura Mitsuo’s Tanizaki Jun’ichirō-ron, criticizes apolitical/unethical stance; Itō Sei’s Tanizaki Junichiro no bungaku, 1970; Inazawa Hideo’s Tanizaki Junichiro no sekai, 1979; Hata Kōhei; Kōno Taeko’s Tanizaki bungaku to kōtei no yokubō, 1976; Tanizaki Seiji’s Meiji no nihonbashi: Tanizaki Junichiro no tegami, 1967; Nomura’s Denki Tanizaki. Also see zenshū for letters.
T.J.’s father “dismally unsuccessful businessman” (722).
See essay in zenshū 24: Dōtokuteki kannen to biteki kannen.
Shunpūshūuroku, 1903: must become businessman, life sucks!
Shindō (Boy Prodigy), 1916.
Tōsei Shika Modoki (in manner of modern storyteller), 1961.
Atsumono (Hot Soup, 1912). 1st love experience. Unfinished.
Shisei, 1910, in Shinshichō (Tōdai magazine)
Shinzei 1911 (12th c. short story turned play)
Kirin (1910): Confucius and disciples. S-M. worship of beautiful, cruel Nantzu. Confucius resists.
Hyōfū (whirlwind), 1911. in mitabungaku, banned due to story. Sex-crazed young artist leaves Yoshiwara for north of Japan on sketching tour. Sees leper, sexy. Returns to Yoshiwara dies in hooker’s arms.
Himitsu, 1911. after visit from Takita Choin at CHūō kōron
Nagai Kafū’s article in Mita bungaku, 1911. 3 characteristics: mysterious depth from carnal dread and pleasure from cruelty; city-oriented concerns; perfection of style.
Akuma, 1912. 1st newspaper commission. Man licks handkerchief of woman. Leads to being called “akumashugisha.”
Jōtarō (1914): T.J’s “Dorian Gray,” says Satō Haruo. Aesthetic reflections of narcissistic, masochistic novelist Jōtarō. Deshi Shōji. Krafft-Ebing. Onui: mistress.
Konjiki no shi: 1914. Okamura’s narcissistic fascination w/ own beauty, intellect (739). Aesthetic views similar to Jōtarō. Other similar lines. Primacy of flesh theory. Body covered in gold leaf, in disguise of Buddha at final extravaganza. Pores choked, he dies. Okamura-narrator dialogue a “roman ideologique”
“More or less autobiographical” works, childhood nostalgia “basic motif in his art,” Nakamura Mitsuo (740), include:
Oni no men, 1916.
Itansha no kanashimi (1917), w/ Intro. unlovable Shōzaburō.
Yōshō Jidai (1955)
Dokutan (1915) (German Spy); TJ’s first European friend. Long quote on Western art. Turn toward West. Beginnings of worship of West. TJ’s wife’s sister, Seiko, un-Japanese features, like Naomi.
Kikonsha to rikonsha, 1917. essay. Irritation w/ Yamatonadeshiko wife.
Norowareta gikyoku, 1919. and Tojō, 1920. perfect crime stories. Wife’s murder.
Nageki no mon, 1918. Kōjin, 1920. both unfinished; interest moves to film.
Essay: Katsudō shashin no genzai to shōrai, 1917.
Film: “Amateur Club” starring sister-in-law Seiko.
Odawara incident: Kami to hito to no aida, 1923-4. “implausible ending.”
“…writings toward end of Tanizaki’s ‘bad’ period were among worst of his entire career” (748).
Only successful ones: Haha o kouru ki, 1919 (year and half after mother’s death, in form of dream, search of small boy for lost mother; similar to “yume no ukihashi” 1959); and Fumiko no ashi, 1919.
Moves to Yokohama in 1921. begins dance lessons.
After quake, old Edo, childhood become the distant, the exotic. See Tokyo wo omou, essay. After Shanghai trip in 1926, he stays in Kansai.
Jōzetsuroku (1927). Orientalism, akutagawa-ron.
Manji, 1928, begins serialization.
Tade kuu mushi, 1929.
See “Sannin Hōshi” (1929), medieval tale adaptation. “Rangiku Monogatari” (1930), 16th century setting, incomplete.
Popularity of historical fiction in 20s (Keene, 760-1).
“Manji” influences?, see: Radclyffe Hall’s “The Well of Loneliness” (lesbian classic), “Alexandria Quartet”
-narrative technique of “Shōshō shigemoto” similar to “that employed by Mori Ōgai in Shibue Chūsai, but the effect is totally different.” Truth first with Ōgai; art first in T.J.
-Tanizaki to Matsuko later in life: take a lover, I don’t mind. See Tanizaki Matsuo’s “Ishōan” and “Ishōan no yume.”
Mōmoku monogatari (1931). Nezu Matsuko inspiration, and also maybe Ozaki Kōyō’s “Darkness in the Heart.”
Bushūkō hiwa, 1931-32. Terukatsu at 13 watching decapitated heads. Later with docile wife, Oetsu. Tries to make a sadist out of her. Fails. Oan monogatari (war experiences from woman’s account) influence.
22. Tenkō Lit of Ex-communists
Takami Jun (1907-1965): “masterpiece of specifically tenkō novels”: Kokyū wasureebeki” (1935-6)
Narrator hissha; main character Ozeki; wife Toyomi; former left-wing friends Tom, Shinohara, Sawamura. Jōzetsu style. This work brough Takami fame. Published in “Nichireki.”
Takami Jun’s dada days, leftist days before war, forced tenkō, torture recorded in “Shin’en” (1950).
“Ikanaru hoshi no moto ni” (1939-40), Asakusa setting.
Post-war second tenkō.
Iyana kanji (1960-3); Shi no fuchi kara (1964; collection of poems)
23. War Lit.
24. Postwar Lit
25. Dazai Osamu and 無頼派
26. Revival of Writing by Women
文学界: lit. magazine (1893-). Great prestige in Meiji.
文学: term first used in Meiji.
文芸時代: 32 issues, small scale (1924-). Associated with 新感覚派.
文芸春秋: pop mag. (1923-) founded by 菊池寛.
中央公論: leading general magaines (1887-); peak 1910-30.
我楽多文庫: periodical of 研友社, 1885-.
岩波文庫: classics of East and West (1927-).
自由民権: Freedom and Popular Rights of Meiji.
観念小説: “novel of ideas,” first used for novels of 1890s.
慶応: founded in 1858 by Fukuzawa, for Dutch learning.
研友社: popular lit. group around 尾崎紅葉 (1885-)
都の花: literary periodical, founded 1888.
都新聞。みやこの新聞: newspaper (1884-1942), featured writers in early days.
明星: poetry journal (1900-) founded by 与謝野晶子.
すばる: succeeded 明星 (1909-)
にちれき: 1933-41, featured tenkō writers.
人間: literary journal founded in 1946 by writers in 鎌倉, including Kawabata.
ロバ: leftist literary journal, founded 1926.
りゅうどCLUB: literature and arts club; met at Ryūdo-ten
しがらみ草紙: founded 1889 by Shinseisha literary group.
四季: poetry magazine, 1934-.
新潮: founded 1904, important literary magazine.
新日本文学: leftist literary magazine, 1946.
しんせいしゃ: poetry society founded by Mori Ōgai, et. Al. (1889-)
新思潮: “New Thought Tides,” literary magazine at 東大, (1907-)
白樺派: Shirakaba-ha, founded 1910 by Mushakōji Saneatsu, Shiga Naoya.
詩と詩論: poetry quarterly, advanced contents (1928-).
春陽どう: founded 1872, prominent during Meiji.
則天去私: Sokutenkyoshi. Natsume’s motto.
常磐津: Tokiwazu style of singing, with accompaniment.
柳橋：Yanagibashi, area along Sumida replete with geisha houses, etc.
読売新聞：founded 1874, important in Meiji lit.
座談会：usually-published chat of 3 or more literati.
From Kanai’s Class
「青鞜派」 Seitōha. 女流文学雑誌。
See: Takahashi Hideo’s “I Novel” study; Mushakōji Saneatsu 武者高次実篤(1885-1976): The Passion, Friendship, Hanasaka-jiji.
Japanese Short Stories, Takashi Kojima, tr. 1961. bad translations.
“Clod of Soil (bad translation; epiphany in end; perspective, aporia)” “Nezumi Kozo (Japanese Robin Hood)”
“Heijū, The Amorous Genius” (好色, 1921): 今昔、宇治拾遺、平中物語、少将茂本の母。平貞分（たいらのさだふん）。See: "Heichū Monogatari" and the Heichū legend / by Susan Downing Videen.
“Otomi no teiso”: approaching troops; bum and hooker.
“Kuma no su”; Buddha and salvation from hell.
“Hana”: Zenchi Naigu’s nose, 50 yr; accurate portrayal of the psychology of vanity; 長楽寺、京都。Take comfort in other’s misfortunes. Appeared in first issue of shinshichō, 1916. Long-nosed priest found in the Konjaku and Ujishui (Yu, 16-18). Gogol’s influence. “morbidity of obsession.” Refuses classification with any of the big three schools at time: Naturalism, Asceticism, and idealism. Made him famous virtually overnight.
“Mikan” “Yonosuke no den”
A fool's life / Translated by Will Petersen. With etchings by Tanaka Ryohei. Imprint [New York] : Grossman,  . Japanese and English texts on facing pages.
Akutagawa: 1892-1927. both Japanese and English. Joyce-ppoi translation.
51 short sketches, from Jidai-Haiboku.
Prefaced with letter to Kume Masao 久米正雄 (1891-1952)
Rashomon and seventeen other stories / Ryunosuke Akutagawa ; selected and translated with notes by Jay Rubin ; with an introduction by Haruki Murakami. Imprint London ; New York : Penguin, 2006.
A World in Decay:
Yabu no naka, 1921.
Dragon: The Old Potter’s Tale (Ryū), 1919.
The Spider’s Thread (Kumo no ito), 1918.
Hell Screen (Jigoku hen), 1918.
Under the Sword:
Dr. Ogata Ryōsai: Memorandum (Ogata Ryōsai Oboegaki), 1916.
Loyalty (Chūgi). 1917.
The Story of a Head that Fell Off (Kubi ga ochita hanashi), 1917.
Green Onions (Negi). 1919.
Horse Legs, (Uma no ashi) 1925.
Akutagawa’s Own Story:
Daidōji shinsuke: The Early Years (Daidōji Shinsuke no hansei), 1924.
The Writer’s Craft (Bunshō), 1924.
Baby’s Sickness (Kodomo no byōki), 1923.
Death Register (Tenkibo), 1926.
Life of a Stupid Man (aru aho no isshō), 1927.
Spinning Gears (Haguruma), 1927.
Notes at end.
The Spider’s Thread, Dorothy Britton. 1987. “Spider’s Thread,” “Art of the Occult,” “Tu Tze-chu” “Wagon.”
A history of Japanese literature / by W. G. Aston. New York, D. Appleton, 1899. Imprint New York : Johnson Reprint Corp., 
Tu Tze-chun / translated by Dorothy Britton, with woodcuts by Naoko Matsubara. Tokyo : Kodansha International in conjunction with Ward Lock, 1965. Intro. Seidensticker.
19th century model; more complicated, different non-happy ending. “more human” than predecessor. Suicidal son of rich man, spen all inheritance. From Loyang. Granted riches, wastes it all, repeatedly. Becomes wizard’s apprentice. “remain silent!”, still killed. See poem “I stroll by cold north seas at dawn. .” last scene?
校正者 reflects on wagon experience at age 8.
Odawara and Atami, Mt. Higane (shizuoka).
Akutagawa’s mother insane; feared insanity; later year’s: “Brilliant mind going to pieces.”
Personal sketches in later years.
Kappa, Geoffrey Bownas, tr.
Doctor Chak, capitalist Gael, Krabach musician, judge Pep, fisherman Bagg, philosopher Mag, student Lap, artist Tok, frame story, insane “I”.
Cultural importation, censorship, sex ritual; war; family system critique by Tok; religion (strindberg); see Mag’s philosophy (Ch 11); Saints: Strindberg, Nietzche, Tolstoy, Doppo, Wagner.
Exotic Japanese stories : the beautiful and the grotesque; 16 unusual tales and unforgettable images / Translated by Takashi Kojima and John McVittie. Introd. by John McVittie. Edited for Western readers by John McVittie and Arthur Pell. 22 collage illus. in color and black & white by Masakazu Kuwata.
尾生の信 “The Faith of Wei Sheng”; “Doll” “Handkerchief” “Gratitude” “Dog, Shiro” “Robbers” “Garden” “Heresy (1918; uncompleted)” “Greeting” (1923; masterpiece) “Absorbed in Letters”
Hell Screen, W.H. Norman, tr. 1948. “Hell Screen” “Jashumon”
“General”: General Nogi; 乃木希典 (1849-1912) Nogi Maresuke, Part I: Private Horio, sarcastic, Corporal Egi, Taguchi. General N. Part II: Private Taguchi; captured Chinese executed, Stendhal quote. Part III: Hazumi’s Theatre Spectacle. Part IV: Father and Son: Nakamura, Lieutenant. 1918 remembrances.
“Mensura Zoilii: The Value Meter of Mensura Zoilii”
See 新思潮（１９０７－）。文芸雑誌。Fukuzawa Yukichi, importer of modern “speech”
Montaigne: 16th century inventor of “personal essay”; Kleist: 18th-c. poet; Weininger 19th c. philosopher, misogynist.
See Kyokutei Bakin, hakkenden. Also, Shikitei Sanba (1766-1822).
Yu, Beongcheong. Akutagawa : an introduction. Detroit : Wayne State University Press, 1972.
See “autobiographical word,” “A Fool’s Life” (tr., Will Petersen);
See Shimazaki Tōson’s 破壊Transgression, 1906. “Sentimental landscape painter” (13) Tayama Katai田山花袋 (1871-1930) “The Quilt” (1907).
See Kume Masao 久米正雄 (1891-1952). See historical fiction of Mori Ōgai. Akutagawa more exotic, more settings, times.
White Birch 白樺（しらかば）group, magazine (1910): 志賀直哉、Mushakoji Saneatsu, 有島武郎。
Under spell of Nietzsche’s Zarathustra (see).
December 1915, begins master-disciple relationship with Sōseki.
Read “Robbers” (1917, Heian. “Ogata Ryosai’s Memorandum” (1916), revival of dead peasant girl by a Jesuit missionary. “Juliano Kichisuke” (1919) “holy idiot.” “The Martyr” (1918), girl accused of fathering a child, attempts to rescue a child from burning house; sex revealed in death.
“Saigo Takamori” (1917): history as branch of literature.
1916-19: “happiest years.” Rashomon, Tobacco and the Devil, and The Puppeteer.
蜘蛛の糸, derived from Dostoevsky’s “An Onion” episode in Book VII. Grushenko and Alyosha talking.
Famous artists as heroes: “Hell Screen” (1918, borrowed from 宇治拾遺, Yoshihide, or Ryōshu, rejoices at neighboring house burning; and Kokin chobunshu?). “very best,” Masamune Hakuchō. Narrative gap. “On a Seashore” (1925), “Those Days” (1918); critics satirized in “Mensura Zoili” (1916) and “Strange Island” (1923). Art about art “Noroma Puppets” (1916), “Marshland” (1919), “An Autumn Mountain” (1920). “Withered Fields” (1918, death of Basho; “The Ball” (1919, Pierre Loti; “Solitary Snipe” (1920, encounter of Tolstoy and Turgenev).
“Creative Frenzy” (1917, portrait of Takizawa Bakin: themes—artists vs. critics; artists vs. readers; artists vs. publishers; artists vs. pupils; artists vs. censors; artists and colleagues)
“Rejecting this cult of life [of the 私小説] he upheld the autonomy, the superiority, of art.
Later years: Yasukichi series, 1922-25: “Fisherman’s Market”; “The Greeting”; “A Young Mother”; “A Certain Love Story”; “The Hack Writer”; “Early Spring” “From Yasukichi’s Notebook”— “not particularly impressive” (65). “The Youth of Daidoji Shinsuke: A Certain Mental Landcape” (1925)
Haguruma, posthumously published, tormented by “ghost in raincoat.”
“Harvest of Death” “Maxims of Midget,” “Dialogue in Darkness” “After Death (1925)”, “One Day of Year’s End” (1925), “Record of the Dead” (1926), “3 Windows” (1927); “Life of Fool” “The Mirage”(anti-story novel); “Man of West”
criticism as art (76). “poet not novelist” (77); identifies w/ Bashō over Buson; Chinese influence, as in Bashō.
“Literary, too Literary”: 50 chapters on art. Fiction most inclusive genre (80). Admiration for Shiga.
Painterly influence: Van Gogh, Picasso, Gauguin. Peak of realism: “House of Genkaku” (1927) and “Garden” “Clod” “Oritsu.” Satire: Kappa, Mensura, Monkey-Crab war, Strange Island, Momotaro; France’s Penguin Island influence.
Likens self to 楠木正成Kusunoki Masashige (1294-1336), warrior led self, troops to suicide battle for Go-daigo.
“The foxes have holes, and the birds of the heaven have nests, but the son of Man hath not where to lay his head” (Matthew, 8:20).
July 24, 1927, fatal dose of veronal. Note to certain old friend” open letter. Hōjōki. ぼんやりした不安.
Topographies of Japanese modernism / Seiji M. Lippit. Imprint New York : Columbia University Press, c2002.
1. Akutagawa’s last writings
Miyamoto Kenji (b. 1908), Haiboku no bungaku, 1929. Akutagawa suicide a warning to aesthetes and intellectuals. Hanashi no nai shōsetsu. Tanizaki-Akutagawa debate, 1927: both formalists. “poetic spirit”? Tanizaki in favor of “suji,” lies. Wilde’s “Decay of Lying.” A.R. interested in lit. similar to Cezanne, Kandinsky paintings.
Destruction of “novel” form. Collapse of genre. Destruction of form, creation of 雑駁な（ざっぱく）genre. Last months: I novel (Haguruma, Shinkirō); fictional story (Genkaku sanbō); autobio esquisse (Fools Life); Gulliver-esque satire (Kappa); exp. Film scenario (Yūwaku” “Asakusa kōen”); sketch of Tokyo (Honjo Ryōgoku); critical essays (Saihō no hito; Bungaku teki amari ni mo bungaku teki); aphorisms (Juppon no hari; Shuju no kobito).
“Futari no tegami” “Shadow” “Haguruma” have doppelgangers. Airplane, Icarus, technology, nightmare vision of modernity, Maruzen.
Anti-genbunitchi. Pro-fabrication; numerous styles: 16th c. vernacular “Hōkyōninnushi” (1918), “Kirishuto hore shōninden”; Meiji archaic “Kaika no satsujin.”
“Kamigami no bishō”: Japanese uniqueness, Bacchanalian Japan. 舞踏会ぶとうかい。”The Ball” (1920), at 鹿鳴館（ろくめいかん）。17 yr old Akiko and French officer. Pierre Loti.
“Every civilization is based on imitation (mohō), even of itself” (68).
Novel’s place: anything can be thrown into it.
Fragmented conscious of man “too influenced by everything”—destruction of novel.
See Hibbett’s Personality in Japanese History; Washburn’s Dilemma of the Modern.
2. Topographies of Empire: Yokomitsu Riichi’s “Shanhai”
3. Kawabata’s “Scarlet Gang of Asakusa” (Asakusa Kurenaidan, 1929-30). Shinkankaku-ha. Bakhtin’s carnival stages.
4. Hayashi Fumiko’s nomadic writing
5. Yokomitsu Riichi 横光利一 (1898-1947). Melancholic Nationalism.
“Love” “Shanghai,” other translations of Yokomitsu.
Renard, “destroyer of novel”; Valery’s “pure poetry”; dessin (figuration)
See Modern Japanese stories, ed. Ivan Morris.
De Gruchy, John Walter, 1962- Title Orienting Arthur Waley : japonism, orientalism, and the creation of Japanese literature in English / John Walter de Gruchy. Imprint Honolulu : University of Hawaii Press, c2003.
Orienting Arthur Waley (fascinating--puts Waley, Japanese studies, and
translation in a political/social/cultural context)
Japonism in Britain from Aestheticism to Modernism
Spirit of Waley in Japanese Poetry
Nōing the Japanese
Whose Golden Age? Tale of Genji
Genji days / Edward G. Seidensticker. Imprint Tokyo : Kodansha International, 1977
Diary from New Year’s Day 1959—
Genji Days (Seidensticker: his diary during the years he was
also includes material on Mishima, Kawabata, etc.)
Complicit fictions : the subject in the modern Japanese prose narrative / James A. Fujii. Imprint Berkeley : University of California Press, c1993
2. Narrative Resentment through Urban-Rural Tension: Shimazaki Tōson’s Hakai
3. Changing Metaphors: Heredity to Centralization, Hakai
4. Style and Language: Sōseki’s Neko
5. Death, Empire, Search for History, Kokoro.
6. Claiming Urban Landscape, Tokuda Shūsei 徳田秋声(1871-1943).
7. Shūsei’s あらくれ
8. Epilogue: Kindai Shōsetsu and Orikuchi Shinobu 折口信夫 (1887-1953).
The fiction of Tokuda Shusei, and the emergence of Japan's new middle class / Richard Torrance. Imprint Seattle : University of Washington Press, c1994
Tokuda, Shusei, 1872-1943 -- Criticism and interpretation
The Shiga hero / William F. Sibley. Imprint Chicago : University of Chicago Press, c1979
1. Shiga Hero’s Childhood
3. Riddle and a Dream
Translations: soba no tame, 1911.
Seibei and gourds, seibei to hyōtan, 1912.
Ko wo nusumu hanashi (1914)
Kinosaki ni te, 1917
Haiiro no tsuki, 1945.
A History of Japanese religion / edited by Kazuo Kasahara ; translated by Paul McCarthy and Gaynor Sekimori. Imprint Tokyo : Kosei Pub., 2001.
Originally published by Yamakawa-Shuppan-Sha in Japanese in two volumes under the title: Nihon shukyo shi (A history of Japanese religion) in the Sekai shukyo sosho (History of world religion series). Contents Religion in primitive Japanese society -- Buddhism and the Nara Schools -- Heian-Period religion : institutional Buddhism -- Heian-Period religion : popular religion -- The birth of Kamakura Buddhism -- The Jodo Sect -- The Jodo Shin Sect -- The Ji Sect -- The Zen Sects -- The Nichiren Sect -- Women and Buddhism -- Shinto and Shugendo -- The Tokugawa Shogunate and religion -- Established religion under the Shogunate: the Jodo, Ji, and Zen Sects -- Underground Buddhist movements in the Edo Period -- Christianity in the Edo Period -- Folk religion and Shugen -- Sectarian Shinto : Tenrikyo and Konkokyo -- Christianity after the Edo Period -- State Shinto --Buddhism and modern society --The growth of new religious movements -- The established religions today.
The literature of travel in the Japanese rediscovery of China, 1862-1945 / Joshua A. Fogel. Imprint Stanford, Calif. : Stanford University Press, c1996
Akutagawa, Tanizaki in China: p. 261-5.
Tanizaki’s first trip in 1918 (for sensual pleasures, according to Keene)
2nd trip, now a celebrity, in 1926. political discussions, drunken party.
See “Nankin fushibyō” “Rozan nikki” “Shina ryokō” “Soshū kikō” “Shanhai Kōyūki” “Shanhai kenbunki”
Japanese literature in Chinese / translated by Burton Watson. Imprint New York : Columbia University Press, 1975-1976. Vol 1, 2. Includes Chiteiki.
Idea for book: Mappō bungaku and Eschatological Literature: A Comparative Study
Modern Japanese novelists: a biographical dictionary / John Lewell. New York: Kodansha International, 1993
Born in Kamo, Hiroshima-ken; Waseda;
Yūhei (Confinement), 1923. Sanshōuo (Salamander) 1929
Apprentice under Tanaka Kōtarō (1880-1941).
‘yofuke to ume no hana” (1925) “Plum blossom by night”
Kuroi Ame (John Bester, tr) 1965-66. serialized in shinchō.
Monkey brain sushi : new tastes in Japanese fiction / edited by Alfred Birnbaum.
Imprint Tokyo : Kodansha, 1991
Shimada Masahiko, b. 1961. “most literary in collection.” Moment in Capsule Jewish Present.
Eri Makino (b. 1953). “Spring” “Entertainment”
Kobayashi Kyōji (b. 1957): Maze Life, Hyōgō-ken.
Yamada Amy (b. 1959): “Bedtime Eyes” about interracial love.
Hashimoto Osamu (b. 1948): Peach-Bottom Girl (1977).
Shimizu Yoshinori: master of pastiche, “Entrance exams” “Soba and Kishimon”
Ohara Mariko (1959): science-fiction.
New Japanese voices : the best contemporary fiction from Japan / edited by Helen Mitsios ; introduction by Jay McInerney. Imprint New York : Atlantic Monthly Press, c1991
Shishōsetsu form, Helen Mitsios, ed. ASU?
Shimada Masahiko島田雅彦, “Callow Fellow of Jewish Descent”
Makoto Shiina 誠椎名, photographer, novelist.
Maruya Saiichi 丸谷才一, “Grass for my Pillow” (sasamakura)
Takekawa Sei, 竹河聖。Tanizaki-influenced female writer, horror.
Also see Robert Coover, William Styron.
Miyoshi, Masao. Accomplices of silence : the modern Japanese novel Berkeley : University of California Press, 
Haiku and Neo-percetionist qualities; Yukiguni 14 years in making (Jan ’35-‘Dec 48); autonomy of parts, a collection of poems; last 25 pages unncessesary; musical rather than architectural structure, flowing free in time; renga form.
Yukiguni: 20 months: starts at 2nd meeting in winter; interruption takes us to 1st meeting in spring; 2nd stay continues to 3rd stay in Fall; remembers vagina’s dampness but not face;
Symbolism too overt! (p.90 in Yukiguni); rensōteki assembling of objects; plot-less; mirror image and time; (flora and fauna: Yoko and Komako); Komako- red, passionate, pure, fire; Yoko: fainter, leaves, ethereal, eyes.
A Third Person Shishōsetsu.
Shimamura: translator of Valery and Alain, French ballet critic; self-aware, ignorant of real ballet; possibly self-portrait of Kawabata as young man.
Ama no Kawa, Tanabata myth of Kengyū and Shokujo.
No moral considerations in art.
Renga: superfluous section: visit to town for chijimi linene; Russian-dragonfly-moth observation (89-90). Kaleidoscope images: The bell tolls; time to leave (155).
Mori Ōgai, “The Imported Life”:
“Maihime” (1890), images of romanticized West, feudal home; now considered “jouvenilia”
Fushinchū (1910), “under construction” other “essay stories”: “Ka no yō ni” (1912), “shakkuri” (1912), Fujidana 1912, “Tsuchi ikka” (1913); name dropping. Worship of west. Theme of “Catch-up with West.” “tentative accommodation.” Japanese experience as ‘incomplete,’ always places Japan in Western frame of context. Shishōsetsu “Seinen” (1913): “no life beyond work” (Ch. 10 quote). Return to past from “Gan” (1911-15) onward until death.
“Gan”: “for once, Ogai seems to be writing fiction, as he digs out the life of ordinary Japanese in Japan.” Suezō and Otama; petty officials abound, awkward narration. Okada’s friend, the narrator, disappears suddenly. “bird-girl in a cage” theme. Symbolic killing of goose. “Wild Duck” by Ibsen. Shishōsetsu phenomenon begins around time of “Gan.” Japanese novelists had 2 choices: details of own life; or “go abroad.” Japanese kizoku as Western colony. (see Strauss, Feuerbach, 19th c. criticism of Christianity, “Leben Jesu”).
Dazai Osamu (1909-48): “Till Death Do Us Part”
Monomaniacal; morphine addict. “Bannen” (1936), collection of “stories,” “meta-autobiographical,” different from shishōsetsu tradition. “Omoide” “kami no tsuru” (letter to ‘you’) “compulsive confessionalism” “vocal complexity.”
“Versatile in varying his tone.” “confession of confession; series of Chinese boxes. “honesty at all costs”; fiction as falsity. Shishōsetsu traced back to zuihitsu tradition: Hibbett.
Diary form; “Villon’s Wife” successful 1st person; also Shayō, split-self, self-apology, “I novel par excellence”; shikkaku. Dazai a “poet” (Seidensticker) of the varying registers. 5th attempt at suicide successful.
Mishima Yukio (1925-19): “A Mute’s Rage”
Fiction as self-referrential (see essay: 小説とは何か); “ching ming” of Pound, right-naming—therefore characters too must speak in “correct” ching ming style, causing awkwardness.
Art and life never converge, like two lines in Euclidean geography. Urge to write comes from tension between the two. Face and mask.
仮面の告白 (1949): two halves. Teens; life w/ Sonoko. A confession? Not necessarily. Any literary work is fictional-truism. Old Pip writing about young Pip. A lyric, not a novel: unrestrained narcissism allows no lyricism. Comfort in brutality. (finish reading essay)
Orientalism: “Overcoming Modernity,” Karatani Kōjin???
Sōseki’s various styles
-confessions of St. Augustine— Rousseau—Arai Hakuseki’s “Oritaku shiba no ki”
Dazai Osamu / by James A. O'Brien. New York : Twayne Publishers, 
3 types of stories: memoir-like; current events and conditions, depictions of; retelling of old stories (hamlet, saikaku, etc.) or (real letters, correspondences, as with “sound of hammering”).
The rhetoric of confession : shishosetsu in early twentieth-century Japanese fiction / Edward Fowler. Imprint Berkeley : University of California Press, c1988
Takayama Katai’s Futon (1907), “prototypical shishōsetsu”
3 authors featured in study:
Chikamatsu Shūkō (1876-1944)
Shiga Naoya (1883-1971)
Kasai Zenzō葛西 善蔵 (1887-1928)
“Red Fudō” analogy (p.50): doesn’t matter it originates in fiction or reality.
Shishōsetsu comes not from a Japanese version of European Naturalism but rather from own tradition (Intro, xvii).
“Ideology of Realism,” Tsubouchi Shōyō’s famous tract denouncing Edo fiction.
Author-as-god phenomenon not present.
“unschooled in the notion of telos, he regarded plot as unnatural fabrication” (xxiii).
Presentation (self-conscious; poetics of presentation; Edo lit; kabuki actors as actors) vs. Representation (conceal methods of representative to make realism: western concept).
Narrator almost always involved as active participant, in Japanese tradition.
Confucian prejudice against “fiction.”
To the distant observer: form and meaning in the Japanese cinema / Noel Burch ; revised and edited by Annette Michelson. London : Scolar Press, 1979
4 contentions: 1) text read in relation to body of texts; 2) “originality” “borrowing” “copying” all foreign concepts, as is “individuality” and the “primacy of person as subject”; 3) linear approach to representation not a privileged one”; 4) primacy of “content” over “form” a Western distinction.
Ōshima Nagisa大島 渚(1932-): ai no corrida
Yamanaka Sadao山中 貞雄 (1907-1938):
Naruse Mikio成瀬 巳喜男: Ukigumo
Masumura Yasuzo増村保造. manji, chijin no ai. afraid to die.
Tokyo stories : a literary stroll / translated from the Japanese and edited by Lawrence Rogers. Imprint Berkeley : University of California Press, c2002.
West of the Palace: Shinjuku/Takatanobaba/Shitababa/Kagurazaka (brothel town; now restaurants)
-Jindaiji in Chōfu (second oldest temple)
Sensōji in Asakusa (oldest temple)
Saegusa Kazuko (1929- )
Irokawa Takehiro (1929-1989) “Sparrows”
Ishikawa Jun, Itō Sei; Dazai’s “Dōke no hana”
The Contemporary “Bearers of Light”according to Miyoshi Masao:
大江健三郎、Furui Yukiichi, Inoue Hisashi, Nakagami Kenji, Kono Taeko,
Tomioka Taeko富岡多恵子, Tsuhima Yuko津島 佑子.
Critics: Karatani Kojin; Oda Makoto; Fujita Makoto; Fujita Shozo; Sakamoto Yoshikazu; Kato Shuichi.
Central Tokyo ; Mire / Kajii Motojiro -- Terrifying Tokyo / Yumeno Kyusaku -- The image / Takeda Rintaro -- Fountains in the rain / Mishima Yukio -- Meeting again / Mukoda Kuniko -- Jacob's Tokyo ladder / Hino Keizo -- Shitamachi ; The death register / Akutagawa Ryunosuke -- Kid Ume, the silver cat / Kawabata Yasunari -- The first day of the fair / Takeda Rintaro -- Elegy / Sata Ineko -- The old part of town / Hayashi Fumiko -- Fireworks / Mishima Yukio -- Azuma bridge / Nagai Kafu -- An unclaimed body / Ikeda Michiko -- West of the palace ; From behind the study door / Natsume Soseki -- Firefly tavern / Saegusa Kazuko -- Sparrows / Irokawa Takehiro -- The south end ; Morning comes twice a day / Inaba Mayumi.
Nip the buds, shoot the kids / Kenzaburo Oe ; translated and introduced by Paul St. John Mackintosh and Maki Sugiyama. London : Marion Boyars, 1995
Intro: “Man’en gannen no futtoboru,” or “Silent Cry,” is “perhaps the greatest postwar novel.” Oe’s influences: Ibuse Masuji and Abe Kobo.
A short history of English literature / Harry Blamires. London ; New York : Routledge, 1984. Good history of the English novel.
Chapter 11. “Origins of the Novel.”
Thomas Lodge’s Rosalynde (1590)
Nashe Unfortunate Traveler (1594), precursor to Defoe’s picaresque novels.
Greene’s “Pandosto”; “Ornatus and Artesia” (1595) by Emmanuel Ford; Thomas Deloney;
Daniel Defoe (1660-1731). First “novelist.” Robinson Crusoe, etc.
Chapter 14: “The 18th-Century Novel”
1740, the novel in infancy. 15 years later Samuel Richardson (1689-1761), self-called “history” Henry Fielding (1707-54), Tobias Smollett (1721-71) publish major works.
Laurence Sterne, Irish, “Tristam Shandy” (1759-65).
Jane Austen (1775-1817)
Chapter 19: Victorian Novel (Queen Victory: 1839-1901)
Central figure: Charles Dickens (1812-70); social consciousness, deft characterization, emotional power, irony, poetry. “as central as Tennyson is to Victorian poetry.”
William Thackery (1811-63). Vanity Fair (1847).
Charlotte Bronte (and 2 sisters) (1816-55): Jane Eyre (1847); Wuthering Heights (1847)
Benjamin Disraeli (1804-81): “Coningsby” (1844); “Sybil” (1845). Social leanings.
Charles Kingsley (1819-75). Feud with John Henry Newman (1801-90). Catholic convert, “greatest writer,” says Dedalus.
Victorian stylists: Ruskin, Arnold, Thomas Carlyle.
George Eliot (1819-80), woman: Middlemarch (1872).
Anthony Trollope (1815-82)
George Meredith (1828-1909): “The Egoist” (1879).
Thomas Hardy (1840-1928), ruffian, poor: Far From the Maddening Crowd (1874); Tess of the D’Ubervilles.
Irish writer George Moore (1852-1933). Emulates French realists like Zola.
R. Louis Stevenson (1850-94). Treasure Island (1883); Strange Case of Jeckyll and Hyde (1886).
Henry James (1843-1916). Portrait of a Lady (1881).
Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936). Light That Failed. 2 Jungle Books.
Lewis Carroll’s Alice in Wonderland (1865). Nonsense verse.
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (1859-1930); detective fiction, Sherlock.
Samuel Butler (1835-1902), Erewhon (1872). “nowhere” anagram. Dystopia precursor, The Way of All Flesh (1903), (mentioned in?) Portrait of an Artist.
Chapter 22: The 20th Century Novel
Dorothy Richarson (1873-1957), experiments preceded Woolf.
Virginia Woolf (1882-1941): suicide at height of air raids. Proust and Joyce affinities. Mrs. Dalloway (1925), To the Lighthouse (1927); The Waves (1931).
D.H. Lawrence (1885-1930). Sexual. Anti-civility.
See John Fowles’ French Lieutenant’s Wife (1969); Proust.
The chrysanthemum and the fish : Japanese humor since the age of the Shoguns / Howard Hibbert. London ; Tokyo : Kodansha International, 2002.
Arthur Koestler called Japanese “mild and poetical” in their humor.
Danly, Robert Lyons. In the shade of spring leaves : the life and writings of Higuchi Ichiyo, a woman of letters in Meiji Japan. 1981. Includes translations of 丈くらべ and にごりえ。
Studies in the comic spirit in modern Japanese fiction / Joel R. Cohn. Imprint Cambridge, Mass. : Harvard University Asia Center : Distributed by Harvard University Press, 1998.
Isogai Hideo; Tsubouchi Shōyō’s “Shōsetsu Shinzui,” very damaging to humor.
Inoue Hisashi (1934- ), great comic writer, “Kirikirijin” a “masterpiece.”
Dazai’s comedy; Ibuse Masuji; Tsutsui Yasutaka’s “Kazoku hakkai,” “What the Maid Saw”
Tales grotesque and curious / Translated from the Japanese by Glenn W. Shaw. Imprint [Tokyo] : Hokuseido Press, [1938, c1930] . also see new translations by Jay Rubin (I think), published this year.
“Tobacco and the Devil” “Nose” “Handkerchief” “Rashomon” “Lice” “Spider’s Thread” “Wine Worm” “Badger” “Ball” “Pipe” “Mori Sensei”
Japanese women writers : twentieth century short fiction / translated and edited by Noriko Mizuta Lippit, Kyoko Iriye Selden. Armonk, N.Y. : M.E. Sharpe, c1991
Miyamoto Yuriko 宮本百合子。1899-1951. leftist. “Family of Koiwai”
Nogami Yaeko 野上弥生子1855-1985. “Full Moon.” Wife of Nō scholar, Natsume-deshi. “Mori,” semi-autobiography.
Hirabayashi Taiko 平林たい子 .1905-72. leftist. “Blind Chinese Soldiers.”
Hayashi Fumiko 林芙美子。1904-51. “Narcissus” Ukigumo. Born low-class. Autobiographical. 晩菊、清貧の書.
太田洋子？Ōta Yōko. A-bomb. “residents of squalor.”
Sata Ineko. Leftist turned collaborator.
Enchi Fumiko 円地文子。1905-86. genji tr. 妖、女坂、女のあやしいさが。Silence until ’57.
Uno Chiyo. 宇野千代。1897-1996. 色ざんげ。おはん。随筆。”To Stab”: scorpion and turtle analogy. “Is but my nature”
Takahashi Takako: “Congruent Figures.” Converted Catholic, meaning through “sin.”
Hayashi Kyōko. “Yellow Sand” Nagasaki, China experiences. Imperial Japan.
Also see: The Father-Daughter Plot, Copeland.
The family of Koiwai / Miyamoto Yuriko -- The full moon / Nogami Yaeko -- Blind Chinese soldiers / Hirabayashi Taiko -- Narcissus / Hayashi Fumiko -- Residues of squalor / Ota Yoko -- Memory of a night / Sata Ineko -- Love in two lives : the remnant / Enchi Fumiko -- Ants swarm / Kono Taeko -- To stab / Uno Chiyo -- Facing the hills they stand / Tomioka Taeko -- Congruent figures / Takahashi Takako -- The smile of a mountain witch / Ohba Minako -- Yellow sand / Hayashi Kyoko -- In the pot / Murata Kiyoko.
The Boddhisattva, or Samantashadra: A Novel. Ishikawa Jun 石川淳. 1899-1987. tr. William Tyler.
French Literature. Compared to Nabokov, Borges. Won Akutagawa prize, satire of Japanese intellectuals in 30s. metafiction. Joan of Arc and chronicler of Japan in 30s. 最後の文人と言われる。Anatole France (1844-1922), Andre Gide (1869-1951) translations.
Definition of metafiction: “Early proponent and creator of metafiction, fiction that uses itself to explore the meaning and potential of the fictive medium” (xii).
Minimal plot: a young man rushes to station to warn his love police are after her.
See Donald Keene’s “Asters” (Shion monogatari?).
See Nanpo, Kyōden, Kazan literati, rebels.
Lippit, Seiji M. Japanese modernism and the destruction of literary form : the writings of Akutagawa, Yokomitsu, and Kawabata / Seiji Mizuta Lippit.
Department: East Asian Languages and Cultures. Thesis (Ph. D.)--Columbia University, 1997. Bibliog. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 272-286).
Notes taken mostly from Matthew Mizenko’s Ph.D. dissertation “The Modernist Project of Kawabata Yasunari” (1992). For further reading, see works by Hasegawa Izumi, Dennis Keene, and Helen McCullough.
Notes on Yukiguni
-Use of synesthesia (石の多い河の音が円い甘さで聴こえてくるばかり。
-Interrogative rather than declarative
-Subjective third person narration, from point of view of Shimamura.
-新感覚派、自他一如： Goal is to break free from subject-object dualism (flower and perceiver one).
-Journey into self, or an escape from mundane to mirrored landscape filled with symbols, much like Nō theater or Bashō poetry.
-Epiphanic moment with the eclipse in the mirror of Yōko, nature/observe
-Two women function as mirrors for Shimamura; dream images in a mirror, existing only as ideals or symbols. As with his interest in ballet, his interest in the two female characters is idealized, detached, distant—Yoko as the sublime, symbolic, vague; Komako as vulgar, sensual.
-Final scene: enlightened or simply an egotistical Narcissist? Comparisons w/ Kawabata’s attitude during and after WWII?
-Shimamura a thinly veiled Kawabata?
Inventing the classics : modernity, national identity, and Japanese literature / edited by Haruo Shirane and Tomi Suzuki. Imprint Stanford, Calif. : Stanford University Press, c2000.
Introduction : issues in canon formation / Haruo Shirane -- [pt. 1.] Nation building and national literature. Manyoshu : the invention of a national poetry anthology / Shinada Yoshikazu -- Constructing imperial mythology : Kojiki and Nihon shoki / Konoshi Takamitsu -- [pt. 2.] Gender, genre, and cultural identity. Gender and genre : modern literary histories and women's diary literature / Tomi Suzuki -- Modern constructions of Tales of Ise : gender and courtliness / Joshua S. Mostow -- Zuihitsu and gender : Tsurezuregusa and The pillow book / Linda H. Chance -- [pt. 3.] History to literature, performance to text. Nation and epic : The tale of the Heike as modern classic / David T. Bialock -- Chikamatsu and dramatic literature in the Meiji period / William Lee -- [pt. 4.] Language, authority, and the curriculum. Kangaku : writing and institutional authority / Kurozumi Makoto -- Curriculum and competing canons / Haruo Shirane.
Japan's first modern novel : Ukigumo of Futabatei Shimei / translation and critical commentary by Marleigh Grayer Ryan. Imprint New York : Columbia University Press, 1967.
Commentary Ch 1-4
19 chapters of Ukigumo (1887-1889): bungling hero’s loss of position, social consequences. Bunzō. Turgenev influence.
Poems to eat / [by] Takuboku. Translated by Carl Sesar. With woodcut illus. by M. Kuwata. Imprint Tokyo : Kodansha International, [c1966]
Carl Sesar’s translations of Ishikawa Takuboku. English only.
Romaji diary ; and, Sad toys / by Takuboku Ishikawa ; translated by Sanford Goldstein and Seishi Shinoda. Imprint Rutland, Vt. : C.E. Tuttle Co., c1985.
Japanese included for Kanashiki gangu.
Diary: poverty, illness, tanka. Diary April – June 1909, 3 years before death.
Edo, the city that became Tokyo : an illustrated history / Akira Naito ; illustrations by Kazuo Hozumi ; translated, adapted, and introduced by H. Mack Horton. Imprint Tokyo : Kodansha International, 2003.
東夷（あずまえびす）。Eastern (Tokyo) barbarians. Ariwara no Narihira poem at Sumida-gawa: 名にし負はば/いざこと問はむ/都鳥/わが思ふ人は/ありやなしやと.(古今集 9: 441)
15th c. Edo Castle, begun in 1457, before Ōnin Wars (1467-77). In 1590 Tokugawa Ieyasu takes possession of ruined castle. 15 generations of Tokugawas. Ieyasu builds nihonbashi, with 5 highways（五街道）：甲州街道（こうしゅうかいどう、甲府、下諏訪（しもすわ）へ）；東海道；中仙（なかせん）道；日光街道；奥州街道. Temples (寛永寺、浅草寺、増上寺) near each.
Chan’an—平安—江戸 (models for city; later changes from grid to spiral). Grid. Learn 24 zodiacal signs. 10 stems 十干。参勤交代system.
後楽園。水戸; fishermen from Tsukudamura 佃村 relocated to 佃島（つくだじま）。
大久保彦左衛門(Ōkubo Hikozaemon) (1590-1639). Famous 旗本, became legend.
Water supply, came from Kanda and Akasaka: not sufficient: expand Kanda system, from ponds. Akasaka system closed: 玉川上水begun. Stopped in 1901.
Edo known for 3 things: inariya, inarini, inu no kuso.
湯女（ゆな）。Men women ration 2:1 in mid-17th century: 葦原－吉原(1615). 5 blocks. By 1642, 125 houses.
明暦の大火。App 1657. Edo castle burns, 100,000 dead. Restored 1659. city rebuilt, borders expanded. 領国橋, first bridge to span 隅田川. 1682, another fire interrupts growth. Saikaku adapts Yaoya Oshichi (1666-1683). 1700, Edo most populous city in world.
Kira Yoshinaka insults Asano Naganori, who wounds him. Asano sentenced to seppuku. Asano’s retainers kill Kira, then commit seppuku.
Official 元禄: 1688-1704. famous merchants: 紀ノ国屋、奈良屋。
徳川綱吉(tokugawa tsunayoshi) (1649-1709), culturally inclined but ineffective. Loved dogs 犬公方inukubō. Built 護国寺、根本中堂at 寛永寺。Adds things Seidō (Confucian temple). 歌学方, poetry institute. 神道方。天文方。Tosa school of painting, adds studio to supplant Kanō.
1st Japanese calendar, 1685. Inaccurate 宣明暦 (senmyō) from Tang dynasty discarded. 貞享暦refined, 1689. overpopulation, need for parks in ap. 1720s.
下北沢water system added. 玉川still major.starvation, crop failure, 1783. rice riots in Osaka ’87.
昌平坂Shōheizaka 学問所 Confucius school by 松平定信Matsudaira Sadanobu.寺子屋,
schools pop up.
Bunka and Bunsei eras (1804-31): rakugo, shirokiya, matsuri, sumo, kabuki rise and stunts, shamisen (18?33 first used in Kabuki), mawaributai, ryōriぢゃ.浮世絵：東海道五十三次。
Edo Yonjuku: Shinagawa, Naitō shinjuku, Itabashi, Senju.
蘭学, Dutch studies. 野呂元丈Noro Genjō (1693-1761).
Fictions of desire : narrative form in the novels of Nagai Kafu / Stephen Snyder. Imprint Honolulu : University of Hawaii Press, c2000.
Ogai, Kafu, and the limits of fiction -- Maupassant and Amerika monogatari -- Udekurabe: the demimonde East and West -- Frustrated form: narrative subversion in Okamezasa -- Bokuto kidan: a "strange tale" and the self-conscious modern.
Oe and beyond : fiction in contemporary Japan / edited by Stephen Snyder and Philip Gabriel. Imprint Honolulu : University of Hawaii Press, c1999.
Oe Kenzaburo and the search for the sublime at the end of the twentieth century / Susan J. Napier -- The road to the river: the fiction of Endo Shusaku / Van C. Gessel -- Temporal discontinuity in the atomic bomb fiction of Hayashi Kyoko / Davinder L. Bhowmik -- Demons, transnational subjects, and the fiction of Ohba Minako / Adrienne Hurley -- Double vision: divided narrative focus in Takahashi Takako's Yosoi Seyo, Waga Tamashii Yo / Mark Williams -- In the trap of words: Nakagami Kenji and the making of degenerate fictions / Eve Zimmerman -- (Re)canonizing Kurahashi Yumiko: toward alternative perspectives for "modern" "Japanese" "literature" / Atsuko Sakaki -- Murakami Haruki's two poor aunts tell everything they know about sheep, wells, unicorns, Proust, elephants, and magpies / Jay Rubin -- Extreme imagination: the fiction of Murakami Ryu / Stephen Snyder -- Dream messengers, rental children, and the infantile: Shimada Masahiko and the possibilities of the postmodern / Philip Gabriel -- Arguing with the real: Kanai Mieko / Sharalyn Orbaugh -- Japanese without apology: Yoshimoto Banana and healing / Ann Sherif.
During the rains & Flowers in the shade : two novellas / by Nagai Kafu ; translated by Lane Dunlop. Imprint Stanford, Calif. : Stanford University Press, 1994.
Tsuyu no atosaki; Hikage no hana.
Preface: N.K: 1879—1959. b. Koishikawa-ku, Tokyo.
“Ambitions” (1902); “Flowers of Hell” (1902; The Woman of the Dream (1903); “Tales of America” (1908); Tales of France (1909). “American-inspired individualism” of Kafū, xi.
“The Fox” (1909). Nostalgic tone; childhood memory pieces.
experiences in Shinbashi geisha district: Sumidagawa, 1909. “Sneers” (1909-10); “Kept Woman’s House” (1912); Geisha in Rivalry (1917); Dwarf Bamboo (1920);
2 chronicles of life in Tokyo, ukiyoe style: During the Rains (1931); Flowers in the Shade (1931).
Frequents to Tamanoi 玉の井 quarters: “Bokutō kidan” (1937).
“The Decoration” (1942); “Sinking and Swimming” (1942); Dancing Girl (1944); Tale No one Asked For (‘44-5) (all published after war).
During the Rains: considered masterpiece by T.J., Nakamura Mitsuo, D. Keene. “oldness of form” vs. “modern colors of the material.”
3 Tokyos: 1st: up to 1923; 2nd up to 1945; third up to present
N.K. poor relations w/ family; disreputable marriage to geisha.
1937, absent at mother’s funeral (didn’t want to see brother)
-Scavengers (1948). Post-war hardships
buried in Zoshigaya in Bunkyo-ku (old Koishikawa).
During the Rains つゆのあとさき
1. Kimie, café at Ginza. Fortune teller. Walks around moat. Runs into Matsuko.
2. Don Juan café. Ya-san customer. Winter. Kiyooka-sensei’s wife in magazine. Ruriko, Tetsuko, Yuriko introduced. Kimie’s famous waitress. Kiyooka Susumu arrives. New book w/ Kyokutei Bakin’s “Adventures of Dreaming Musubei” ripped off.
3. Kimie and Haruyo. W/ Yata.
4. Kiyooka shows up.
5. Setagaya, Kiyooka’s father, Akira, also a writer.
6. Noda Geisha house in Fujimi-chō. 3 men, one Komada Hirokichi, Kiyooka’s agent. Kiyooka. Younger reporter. Kiyooka muses over Kimie. Runs into Kimie’s landlady. Lowly, illiterate woman. Snoops around Kimie’s room.
7. drunk, Kimie has other plans for night. Tries to juggle all suitors. Consults Matsuzaki, former high official in Kobiki-chō. Sent to prison in scandal. He muses on old Ginza vs. new. Gets didactic about “aped West” etc. Kimie hooker in Western sense. Old bitter man, pervert w/ 20 year old girls. Meanwhile Kimie schemes to meet Kiyooka, after meeting dancer Kimura Yoshio, Nijinsky-Chinese ballet in it. Yata shows up . . .
morning. Kimie and Yata. Came to Tokyo at 17 yr old, fucked so many. Yata gone. She masturbates? Kimura shows up.
8. Tsuruko’s breakfast while husband Kiyooka sleeps. Letter from French lady. Tsuruko goes to visit French lady at Imperial Hotel. Invited to West. Decides to go.
Kiyooka’s disciple Muraoka, student-house-boy Noguchi, 2 or schoolfriends see her off. Makes yuzuru joke to Muraoka. Kiyooka, wife gone, plans revenge on Kimie. Cut her up? Throw her out naked in Ginza? Nihonbashi bridge put her up for display?
Goes to Ginza, get hammered. Kimie passes by. Taxi driver says he’s an old lover, throws her out of car, speeds away: “you whore”
9. scared, looks for doctor. Tells everyone “just a cold.” Letter from Muraoka, disciple: “save sensei”! moat passage. Iidabashi—Ichigaya moat. View of Koishikawa. Kimie put driver up to it? Kimie runs into old patron, “uncle.” Fallen Kawashima Kinnosuke, white-collar crook. Goes to Kimie’s place. Description of her face “supremely elegant.” She wakes up naked. Finds letter, suicide letter: “I’m already dead.”
Hikage no hana (1934)
3rd person narrator:
O-chiyo: geisha, 36. living in Sakuragawa flat. Had daughter at age 17, first marriage.
Otami: daughter. Now 20. Dancer, then same profession as mom. Mekake to Tsurukawa. Writes letter to Tsukayama in last section.
Nakajima Jūkichi: dilletante, gigolo, lives with (married to?) O-chiyo. Good for nothing. Pushes Ochiyo to be a prostitute/waitress. Enjoys the thrill. Wrote novelist after university graduation about life as otoko-mekake with Taneko. Early novel a subtext from chapter 3- .
Taneko: geisha in mid-forties. Lives with Jukichi at one point.
Tama-chan: geisha Jukichi runs into on street.
Itō-san: café waitress.
Sugimura: dirty old man. offers Ochiyo a place.
Run, Melos! : and other stories / Osamu Dazai ; translated by Ralph F. McCarthy. Imprint Tokyo : Kodansha International, 1988.
A Promise Fulfilled, 満願
At Mishima in Izu. Narrator recalls drunken accident, drunk doctor
One Hundred Views of Mt. Fuji, 富岳百景
Cherry Leaves and the Whistler, 葉桜と魔笛
Run, Melos! 走れ、メロス
Eight Scenes from Tokyo, 東京の八景
One Snowy Night, 雪の夜の話し。
The development of realism in the fiction of Tsubouchi Shoyo / Marleigh Grayer Ryan. Imprint Seattle : University of Washington Press, 
Ch 2: Shōsetsu shinzui essay (1885-6); translation of Shakespeare’s Complete Works (1884- ); frequented pleasure quarters (p. 81).
Ch 3: Imotose Kagami (Mirror of Marriage, 1885-6)
Ch 4: Tōseishosei Katagi (Character of Present Day Students, 1885).
Ch 5: Matsu no uchi (1888- ); tone of “bemused objectivity” (96), “no moralizing”
Ch 6: Saikun (1888): last serious attempt at realistic fiction. Well-wrought, thought out. Serious tone; slight but good novel (113). Inflections bungo-tai w/ modern diction (p. 115). “Never again” in 1889, gives up fiction (p. 102).
A reader's guide to Japanese literature / J. Thomas Rimer. Imprint Tokyo ; New York : Kodansha International, 1999. Very handy guide.
p. 80: 上田秋成 (1734-1809). 江戸後期の国学者・歌人・読本作者。「雨月物語 (1776)」. Parentless, physician, philologist. See: Barry Jackman, Chambers.
p. 105 Kōda Rohan 幸田露伴(1867-1947): Tai dokuro “Encounter with skull”； 五重の塔；Higeotoko. Ueda Akinari influence. Looks forward to historical narratives of 井上靖. See: Chieko Mulhern’s translation, 1985.
Yokomitsu Riichi 横光利一 (1898-1947).
Modernist, 新感覚派 with 川端。
旅愁。上海。機械 (1930). 時間 (1931)。「春は馬車に乗って」(1926). See Dennis Keene’s translations.
井上靖 (1907-1991). 「氷壁」
「ある儀作家のショウガイ」1951 “The Counterfeiter.” Painter-research story.
“Roof Tile at Tempyō” tr. James Araki. See “Lou-lan and Other Stories” (Seidensticker).
有吉佐和子 Ariyoshi Sawako (1931-1984).
“Hanaoka Seishū no tsuma,” 1966. historical novel (Hanaoka: 1760-1835).
大江健三郎 Ōe Kenzaburō’s “Man’en gannen no Futoboru” (“Silent Cry”) 1967.
See: Konishi Jin’ichi’s anthology; Rimer’s Modern Japanese Fiction and Traditions; Doi Takeo’s The Psychological World of Natsume Sōseki.
No consultations today / [Translated] by [E.] Seidensticker & Glenn Shaw. [A far-worshiping commander. Translated by Glenn Shaw] Annotated by Sakuraba Nobuyuki. Imprint [Tokyo : Hara Shobo],  Ibuse Masuji.
「日本休診」「遥拝隊長 “Far-worshiping commander”」. Jan 1966.
Salamander and other stories / Masuji Ibuse. Imprint Tokyo : Kodansha International, 1981
Ibuse Masuji. 井伏鱒二。John Bester. 1981.
Born Hiroshima. Waseda, French dept. 1st story: Salamander, 1923. Black Rain won Noma prize.
“Plum Blossoms By Night” (1930), “European short story.”
“Lieutenant Lookeast” (1950), “biting satire”
Old Ushitori (1950), Jap. Peasant.
Carp, “semi-autobiographical” (1926).
Life at Mr. Tange’s (1931): “techniques at most quintessential”
Yosaku the Settler. Historical theme (1955).
Savan on the Roof.
Ibuse and Hokusai often compared.
Inoue Yasushi 井上靖 (1907-1991) translations:
Flood. (Japanese and English, tr. Bester)
Lou-lan. Araki and Seidensticker.
The Counterfeiter. Obasute. Full Moon. Leon Picon.
Wind and Waves. James Araki. 13th c. Kubla Kahn (1963).
Tun Huang. 1026. West china. Tr, Jean Moy.
Shiro Bamba. 1962. early 20th c.
Roof Tile of Tempyō. 天平の甍. (Tempyō: 729-749). Araki.
Hunting Gun. Sadamichi, Glodstein Sanford.
Road to Fudaraku (in Oxford Book of Japanese Short Stories)
A dark night's passing / Naoya Shiga ; translated by Edwin McClellan. Imprint Tokyo : Kodansha International, 1976
暗夜行路. 1921-1937. 心境小説の代表作。「改造」に継続連載。Translated:
Prologue: A Hero’s Reminiscences: I narrator.
Ch 1-20: 3rd person 私小説.
時任謙作 Tokitō Kensaku.
The father-daughter plot : Japanese literary women and the law of the father / edited by Rebecca L. Copeland and Esperanza Ramirez-Christensen.
Ch. 9. Kōda Rohan and Kōda Aya.
See Okamoto Kanoko (1889-1939): Boshi jojō (1937).
Tanizaki’s Yume no ukihashi (1959).
Kanai Mieko’s eroticized mother-child “Boshizō” “Usagi”
Heroic with grace : legendary women of Japan / edited by Chieko Irie Mulhern. Imprint Armonk, N.Y. : M.E. Sharpe, c1991.
1. Empress Jingū. 神宮皇后。じんぐうこうごう。
4. 巴tomoe. Woman warrior, late Heain. Nō play.
5. 北条雅子。Hōjō masako. (1157-1225). Wife of founder of Kamakura Shogunate, 源頼朝 minamoto yoritomo. Fierce, proud, jealous woman. Dowager shogunate, 尼将軍。
有吉佐和子ariyoshi sawako. 1931-1984. focus on social problems.
The Columbia anthology of modern Japanese literature / edited by J. Thomas Rimer and Van C. Gessel. Imprint New York, N.Y. : Columbia University Press, c2005- . from 1868-1945.
1. First Experiments:
Mori Ogai, San’yūtei Enchō; Tōkai Sanshi; Shimazaki Tōson’s poetry
Futabata Shimei; Izumi Kyōka; Kōda Rohan; Kunikida Doppo; Masamune Hakuchō;
Mori Ogai’s Takasebune (1916?)
Edo, Kansei period. Takase boats on Takasegawa in Kyoto that take Kyoto criminals to Osaka. Kisuke (convicted murderer; assisted w/ brother’s attempted suicide) and Shōbe (constable rowing him on takasebune to Osaka). Shōbe sympathizes with Kisuke after tells story. Story of fratricide borrowed, appears in Okinagusa. Euthanasia.
; Nagai Kafu; Ozaki Kōyō; Shimazaki Tōson; Tayama Katai; Tokuda Shūsei; Tokutomi Roka.
Natsume Sōseki: 「現代日本の開花」 「私の個人主義」, issues: “Western civilization flows along as naturally as . .”; “stairway of civilization”?; “dressed in borrowed clothing”; “Japanese as pitiful imitators, superficial; last paragraph.
Yosano Akiko’s “An Open Letter”;
Hagiwara’s Sakutarō’s “Nihon e no kaiki” (1938); a rather odious little essay
1. Compares West-crazed Japanese of Meiji to Urashima and his box
2. Hearn’s prophecy of Japanese rising up against white man finally “coming true.” The voyage is over; returning home.
3. We’ve absorbed Tang, now we must “replace the ancient Tang.” Final words of national purity.
4. Interwar Years
Akutagawa Ryūnosuke’s “Nose” “Christ of Nanking”; Arishima Takeo;
Edogawa Ranpo. Ningen Isu. “Human Chair”
Themes: perversion; play between fiction and reality
Yoshiko: successful writer, married to successful diplomat. Receives letter from fan
Anonymous author of letter: confesses about living in chair to fondle women, including Yoshiko; reveals in second letter that it was just a story.
Hori Tatsuo; Inagaki Taruho;
Itō Sei, M Hyakkaten, 1931. “Department Store Called M”
Joycean narrative techniques. Narrator, Kusano’s thoughts distinguished by italics: one in hiragana, one in katakana? Unconcious/conscious thoughts distinguished by italics?
I. Kusano Hitoshi: Hitoshi, university student, runs into actress Miwa Kiriko, wife of friend Narumi Umekichi. Togther they shop. Wonders what would happen if . . .
II. Miwa Kiriko. Miwa’s thoughts. Roof deck/observation deck of M Department Store.
III. Shikayama Hikaru. Actor at Parnasse Theater, runs into them.
IV. Miwa Kiriko. Spots Shikayama.
Kajii Motojirō; Kawabata Yasunari; Kobayashi Takiji; Kuroshima Denji; Miyamoto Yuriko; Origuchi Shinoba; Shiga Naoya; Takeda Rintarō; Tani Jōji; Tanizaki’s “2 Acolytes”; Uno Kōji;
Yokomitsu Riichi Hiezan
3rd person. Family visit to Kyoto. First time for Chieko, Kiyoshi.13th anniversary of Chieko’s father’s death. Walk to Biwako. Stream-of-consciousness: musings on Dengyō Daishi伝教大師 (Saichō; founder of Japanese Tendai sect) and Kōbō Daishi 弘法大師 (KUKAI; founder of Shingon sect), of Heian period; musings on death. Plays flute w/ son: Hokekyo.
Tanizaki’s Okuni to Gohei
All 3 men are or were once Okuni’s lover.
Okuni: on 4 year trek w/ Gohei to avenge Master Iori’s death.
Gohei: retainer, Okuni’s lover
Ikeda Tomonojō: cowardly murderer of Iori
Master Iori: Okuni’s dead husband, murdered by Ikeda.
Kobayashi Hideo’s “故郷を失った文学”; Satō Haruo’s “風流の論”
6. War Years
Dazai. Jūnigatsu yōka (1942). “December 8” (Pearl Harbor day diary entry from housewife).
; Ishikawa Tatsuzō’s “Soldiers Alive” (first hand accounts of war in China); Kajiyama Toshiyuki (1930-75), war writing, Korea; Nakajima Atsushi; Ōka Shōhei, “Taken Captive” (1909-1988) “Furyoki” “Nobi”; Ōta Yōko, “bomb writer,” “Fireflies,” “Hotaru” “Rei no Machi”; Shimao Tosho “出発はついおとずれず”; Uno Chiyo (1897-1996) “new woman,” “妻の手紙” “色ざんげ.
Hagiwara Sakutarō’s “Return to Japan”;
Kobayashi Hideo. Mujō to iu koto. “On Impermanence.” 1942.
Manzaburō’s “Taima.” Zuihitsu on Zeami’s “Taima”; Zeami’s aesthetics, the concept of the flower; ideation/facial expressions vs. concealment/body movements
Sakaguchi Ango “Personal View of Japanese Culture”;
島崎藤村(1872-1943): b. Nagano. New style. Wakanashū.
東海散士Tōkai Sanshi (1852-1922). Political writer. Kajin no kigū (佳人の奇遇).
泉鏡花(1873-1939): 荒野聖Kōya hijiri, 1900.
幸田露伴 (1867-1947). 風流仏 “Buddha of Art” or “Icon of Liberty.” READ 連環記!
国木田独歩(1876-1947). Chiba-born. “Gyūniku to bareisho 牛肉と馬鈴薯.” Tanpenshū [Unmei].
然主義predecessor. 酒中日記。欺かざるの記。Christian, social concerns. Lyrical.
政宗白鳥Masamune Hakuchō (1879-62). Christianity encounter. “Naturalists” tried to reveal deep emotional truths about selves. “Doro ningyō” (1911), about unhappy marriage.
尾崎紅葉。Ōzaki Kōyō (1868-1903). Most popular novelist of day. 金色夜叉konjiki yasha “Gold Demon”. Dickensesque. Romantic love and capitalism.
田山花袋Tayama Katai, “naturalist” (1871-1930); 少女びょう。Pervert.
(see 曲亭馬琴Kyokutei Bakin).
徳田秋声Tokuda Shūsei (1871-1943). Began as “naturalist,” moved to more subtle methods. Master of feminine psychology. 町の踊り場(1933).
徳富蘆花Tokutomi Roka (1868-1927). Admirer of Tolstoy; met Christian, social crtc. 灰燼。
堀辰雄Hori Tatsuo. 1904-53. elegant style. French influence. Love and death. 風立ちぬ。
稲垣足穂Inagaki Taruho (1900-77). 一千一秒物語。Protégée of Sato Haruo. Modernist fables
伊藤整Itō Sei (1905-69). Tr. Joyce, Lawrence. Modernist. “Department Store Called M” (M 百貨店,1931). Stream-of-consciousness.
梶井基次郎Kajii Motojirō. 1901-32. Lemon (檸檬), 1925. “prose-poem.”
折口信夫Orikuchi Shinobu (1887-1953). Scholars of folklore, tr. Of 万葉集。
志賀直哉(1883-1971). 暗夜行路, “Diary of Clawdines” (1912). “Hamlet.” 障子。
武田りん太郎 Takeda Rintarō (1904-46). “Lot of Dire Misfortune”
宇野浩二Uno Kōji (1891-1961). 枯木のある風景, based on painting by Koide Narashige.「苦の世界」。早大。
横光利一Yokomitsu Riichi (1894-1947). 比叡山(1935).早大。
岸田国士(1890-1954). ブランコ “The Swing.”
Ch 4: The War Years
中島敦Nakajima Atsushi (1909-42). Reworking of Chinese classics.
大岡昇平Ōoka Shōhei (1909-88). French lit. Stendhal tr. Drafted, sent to Philippines, 野火(’52); 俘虜記(’48).
島尾俊夫 Shimao Toshio (1917-86); 死の棘(1977).「出発は。。」
宇野千代Uno Chiyo (1897-1996). 色ざんげ、おはん、私。Tsuma no tegami.
高村光太郎。Takamura Kōtaro. 1883-1956. 智恵故抄。典型。ロダンの言葉。Propaganda poetry.
The fantastic in modern Japanese literature : the subversion of modernity / Susan J. Napier. Imprint London : Routledge, 1996
Izumi Kyōka’s “masterpiece”: Kōya Hijiri 荒野聖(1900), novella;
See Paul Hulbert’s essay on 夢野久作
Charles Inouye on Izumi Kyōka.
Carol Gluck’s, “Japan’s Modern Myths: Ideology in Meiji”
Kirikirijin, Inoue Hisashi (1981); “Boon to Phoon” (1970), a “nonsense masterpiece”
Hume on fantasy, departure from “consensus reality”
“final awareness of unknowability”
Sōseki’s “Maboroshi no tate” (1906); fantasy, western influence
Murakami’s “Hard Boiled Wonderland”
Tanizaki’s “Reed Cutter”; Abe’s “Mikai”; Kawabata’s “Kataude”; Tsutsui’s “Yoruno wakusei”; Nakagami Kenji’s “Fushi” (1984); Nosaka Akiyuki’s “Amerika hijiki” (1967).
Fantasy provides alternatives to the myth of “Japan’s success story”
Preference for self-autonomy in Murakami.
Ueda Akinari’s “Asaji gayado”—Ugetsu movie
Tanizaki’s “Yuki” (1964); Enchi fumiko’s “Onnamen” (1958) “Masks”
Ōba Minako’s “Yamauba no bisho” (1976); Akira;
Akutagawa’s “Kappa” and the distopia; Sōseki’s “Kōjin” Wayfarer; Kōfu (Miner);
Yumeno Kyūsaku’s “Dogura” (1935), Kyūshū; statement of horros of modern life” (190)
“Kurutta ichipe-ji” movie, Japan as mental asylum.
Akutagawa’s “Haguruma” (1927), urban madness; technology, trains; etc.
Sakaguchi Ango “Sakura no mori no mankai no shita” (1956)
Abe Kōbō’s “Dargon kanpyōki??” (1958) Ice Age; “mikai” (secret rendevdous).
The Oxford book of Japanese short stories / edited by Theodore W. Goossen. Imprint Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1997. Excellent intro.
Japanese has “lyrical roots,” not as centered on plot.
Japan favors shorter works.
Trail-blazers- Ogai, Soseki.
Settlers- Masamune Hakuchō, Shiga Naoya, Kawabata Yasunari,
Wanderers-Akutagawa, Hayashi Fumiko, Hirabayashi Taiko, Enchi Fumiko, Okamoto Kanoko.
Survivors- Ōka Makoto, Mishima, Oe Kenzaburo,
Entertainers- Sakamoto Ryuichi, Murakami Ryu, Murakami Haruki. (私小説”no longer in vogue”)
The short story in Japan “draws from native traditions as well as those of the West.” 5 groups.
(most works are a combination of these 5 groups).
Stories of the self: “Gossamer Years” by “the mother of Michizane”; Shiga Naoya’s stories of (disappearing) self.
The water trade: Chikamatsu, Nagai Kafu, Kawabata, Okamoto Kanoko
Love and obsession: no translation for “I love you” when confronted for the first time with Western literature.
Legends and fairy tales: Ōgai’s “Sanshō” from legend (self-sacrificing sister Anjū “elevated to national hero”); Sōseki’s nightmare (kid a “harbinger of doom, a representation of the crushing weight of Japan’s betrayal of its own past”); Sakaguchi Ango’s story; Akutagawa.
Political/social commentary: Buddhist insistence on the primacy of inner life, and the prominence of lyrical traditions made this genre somewhat rare. But exceptions include Kamo no Chōmei; Ogai’s “Sanshō” (“elevated a vision of pure self-sacrifice at a time when that most central of all samurai virtues was being manipulated and transformed in the interests of the expanding Japanese empire”); Inoue’s “Passage to Fudaraku” (suicide bombers victims or noble heroes?); Kojima Nobuo’s “The Rifle”; Oe’s “Prize Stock”; Shimada Masahiko’s “teasing parable,” “Desert Dolphin”;
Nagai Kafū: “Peony Garden” Botan no kyaku (1909)
I: recalls time w/ Koren. Trip down Sumida to look at peonies in Honjo. From Ryogoku bridge. Finally arrive, only to be dissappointed at peonies “made to bloom too long” . . a bit like us. Final scene: weary and bored.
Sansho the Steward (1915) Sanshō dayū (1915)/ Mori Ogai (1862–1922).
Pre-modern (after Heian?) setting, fall.
Unusual band on way from Echigo to Imazu, walking, looking for father.
Mother: 30, leading group. Now blind, reunited with Zushio in final scene.
Anju: 14 year old daughter. Drowns self. Nunnery named after her.
Zushio: 12 year-old boy. Both sold into slavery, branded, forced to work. Zushio escapes to Kyoto. Restored (noble birth) to governor. Takes name Masamichi. Bans slavery.
Servant Woman Ubatake: 40. drowns self after separation.
Yamaoka Tayu: sinewy man, 40, sailor. Offers lodging. Shady.
Miyaki no Saburo: boatman. Takes 2 children southward. Sells kids into slavery for 7 kanmon.
Sado no Jiro: takes mother and Ubatake.
Morozane: chief advisor to Emperor, son of Mutsu no Matsu(?)
The third night / Natsume Soseki (1867-1916)–
Dream: 6-year old on back, blind. Reads mind of narrator wanting to unload burden. Fork in road: left to Higakubo, right Hottawara. Go left. Arrives at ceder’s root: “this is where you killed me 100 years ago.” The brat becomes tremendously heavey, “as a god of stone.”
The bonfire Takibi (1896)/ Kunikida Doppo (1871-1908)–
7 or 8 boys playing on beach, aged 9-12. Izu, near Enoshima, Sagami bay. old wandering man apears, comes to fire. Spent 10 years away. “best fire,” he says. Old man leaves; fire, footprints washed away.
Separate ways 「わかれ道」 (1896)/ Higuchi Ichiyo (1872-1896)---
Kichizo: boy from umbrella shop, “dwarf”, 16. no relatives, street actor, picked up by Omatsu, let him work in umbrella shop. Violent tendencies. Sad at Okyo’s moving. Sulks.
Okyo: seamstress. Going off to be someone’s mistress. stylish girl, early 20s, only child. Sister-figure to Kichizo.
Omatsu: old fat woman, dead for two years.
New owners and son Hanji:
Night fires 「焚火」(1920)/ Shiga Naoya (1883-1971)
Cottage near Mt. Kurobi, near Kotori island. Scary stories session. K’s story: lost at night on snowy mountain. Mother intuitively senses his approaching, sends bro-in-law to greet him. Nature “an active force that dwarfs the protagonists.” “Boundaries between individuals are also obliterated.” Emotions are shared rather than personal. Story of (disappearing) self.
Young innkeeper K-san:
Ichiya: feeble-minded boy.
-- Aguri Aoi hana (1922)/ Tanizaki Junichiro –
Blowfish Fugu (1913)/ Satomi Ton (1888-1983)–
Events of 1883.
Jitsukawa Endo: Kabuki star. Just back from southern Japan. Thinks he has brain malady. Blowfish poisening while passing through Hiroshima? Recalls father’s death. Dies. Tamosho restaurant closes.
Portrait of an old geisha Rōkishō (1939)/ Okamoto Kanoko (1889-1939)
“positive side of the water-trade.”
Hiraide Sonoko (Kosono), old geisha.
Narrator: younger, waka teacher.
Yuki, handyman, aspiring inventor.
Makita: older friend of Yuki.
Michiko: Kosono’s adopted daugher.
*Okamoto known for having young boyfriends in addition to her husband.
In a grove (1921) / Akutagawa Ryunosuke –
The bears of Nametoko Nametokoyama no kuma (?1927)/ Miyazawa Kenji (1896-1933)–
I: narrator, talking about Mt. Nametoko.
Kojuro Fuchizawa: famous hunter, apologetic. Sells liver and fur.understands bear-talk. Hard times. Makes deal w/ bear. 2 years later, bear keeps deal, shows up dead.
Kojuro dies by bear. Final scene: lights and fires, shadows in a ring atop plateau.
Spring riding in a carriage Haru wa basha ni notte (1926)/ Yokomitsu Riichi (1898-1947)–
Woman: dying of turburculosis.
Man: tends to wife as she dies.
Conversations; reading bible to her; final scene: woman clutching spring flowers in hospital.
Carp (1926)/ Ibuse Masuji (1898-1993)–
I: gives carp to mistress. Takes it back after Aoki’s death. Puts it in Waseda pool. Pond freezes. Draws picture of it in the ice.
Nanpachi Aoki: old friend, now dead
The Izu dancer (1925)/ Kawabata Yasunari –
Lemon (1925)/ Kajii Motojiro –
Kajii Motojirō (1901-32). “Lemon,”strange masterpiece. Maruzen. State-of-mind.
The accordion and the fish town Fukin to Uo no Machi (1931) / Hayashi Fumiko (1903-1951)–
I: recalls past memory during teens with poverty-stricken family. Family outing; come upon a gathering in a town Onomichi (mayor came). Always hungry. Smart, literature, cramped by poverty.returns to school after a year or so break. Teased at school. Father arrested, beaten by cops. “I” runs away to sea.
Father: good on accordian. Selling things, face lotion, medicine; playing accordian for money.
Mother: crying, chanting prayers.
The flower-eating crone Hana-kui uba (1974)/ Enchi Fumiko (1905-1986)–
“I” narrator: failing eyes, middle-aged. In zuihitsu style, recalls one fall afternoon looking at petals of cactus plant. Spots old woman, who eats the petals. Talk of love, sex, kabuki. “I” recalls plant she bought 2 years ago; pile of letters found two years ago in mansion. Recalls love with distant relative long ago.
Old flower-eating woman: bad eyes. Talks of Kabuki, love with narrator. While talking, walking, they spot a mutual acquaintance (narrator’s old lover?), professor, hates blue-stocking women.
Problem of time in narration?
Blind Chinese soldiers Mōchūgokuhei (1946)/ Hirabayashi Taiko (1905-1972)–
I: Recalls March 9, 1945. “intellectual-turned farmer.” Sees Prince Takematsu in car. Sees blind soldiers being led in a group, perhaps fresh out of a medical experiment.
In the forest, under cherries in full bloom Sakura no mori no mankai no shita (1947) / Sakaguchi Ango (1906-1955) –
Zuihitsu. “I” narrator. Sakura used to be something to be feared. Tells story of bandit (rashōmon? influence) crossing Suzuka Pass, where travelers lose their minds during sakura no mankai. Kidnaps woman, kills husband, takes her to house where his 7 wives live. Orders him to kill six of seven wives. Haunted by cherry blossoms, determined to sit in forest during mankai, and take her along.
Captured woman from the capital very demanding, orders him around. He thinks of all his victims from the capital. Develops hatred, fear of capital. Sneaks to see blossoms. Assaulted by the “utter emptiness,” escaps.
They move to capital. She commands him to murder various people, has heads lined up. Plays games with heads. Suckles the heads. “I” taunted by people of the capital.
Her endless desire is like a bird flying in a single line across the sky. Sick of it all, he contemplates killing her. Decides not to; goes into forest. Wakes up among blossoms. Cured of fear. The two heard back to mountains. She turns into a demon, he kills her. She turns back to self before being killed. She disappears. In anguish, he disappears.
Also see: JSTOR
Culture, Nationalism, and Sakaguchi Ango James Dorsey Journal of Japanese Studies > Vol. 27, No. 2 (Summer, 2001), pp. 347-379.
Passage in Fudaraku Fudaraku Tokaiki (1961)/ Inoue Yasushi (1907-1992)–
Konko: 61. abbot of Fudaraku-ji in 1565, meditates on going out to see. Other abbots set out to sea at age 61.
Shokei: his former teacher. Achieved englightment at 61.
The day slowly approaches. Sets out. Abandoned at sea. Blown back ashore the next day. Pushed out again. Policy changes. Became post-mortem ritual after Seigen’s trip (13 years after Konko).
Merry Christmas Merii Kurisumasu (1946) / Dazai Osamu (1909–1948)
I: Shortly after war, returns to Tokyo from Tsugaru. Dinner for 3 (including dead mother)
Shizueko: runs into I on street. Pursues her rather than mother.
Shizueko’s mother: same age as I; aristocrat. Killed in Hiroshima.
The expert Meijin-den / Nakajima Ton (atsushi?) (1909-1942)–
Ancient state of Chao.
Chi Chang: archer
Wei Fei: teacher. Teaches Chi Chang how to not blink, how to make small things look large. Tries to kill master. Fails. The two embrace.
Kan Ying: greatest master. “follow him,” advises Wei Fei. Teaches him to “shoot without shooting.”
Stays 10 yrs w/ master. Returns home. Asked to show his stuff; refuses.
Ultimate stage of activity is inactivity. False distinctions collapse: I=he; this=that. Wholeness of sensory perception. Fogets use and even name of bow.
The rifle (Shōjū, 1952)/ Kojima Nobuo (1915- )–
Early spring. Northwest China.
I: intimate relation with rifle. Reminds him of “her”
Her: pregnant, married woman of 26. husband on front.
2: executes pregnant Chinese woman
3: contracts disease from Korean woman.
4: trouble with superiors
5: hallucinations, death-wishery
6: war ends: reunion with A62377 in Chinese labor camp
Unzen (1965) / Endo Shusaku (1923-1996) –
Wetern edge of Kyushu, town of Obama. Home of Christian martyrs.
Novelist Suguro: visits scene, place of torture for Christians, ca. 1630. refers to Collado’s “Christian Confessions”
What is martyrdom? Discussion. Pride? Selfishness? Insanity? Suguro sees more.
Animal corpses abound.
Apostate Kichijirō, witness to tortures. Recanted, spared.
Makes it to top of hill. Quote from sources about the burning scene. Finds charred stone. Takes it, walks away meekly.
The bet Kake (1960)/ Abe Kobo (1923-1993)–
A Corporate/modern-age dystopia.
I: architect at drawing board at AB Company. Presenting to “man” common-senseless blue prints that fly in face of all previous, conventional theory.
Man: advertising agent. Agrees to meet tomorrow at AB company, a “living organism.”
2. “I” arrives at AB building, 8:30am. Greeted with “o-kaeri.” Slogans all around.
3. wanders up stairs, gets lost.
4.meets psychoanaylist. Visit the room called “the Sytem,” where all employees have daily advertisement-association exam. Milking of advertisement ideas from unconscious. Manipulation of unconscious for maketing (Century of Self; use of Freud in marketing).
5.advertisers, not the politicians, drive the age! he’s informed. Employee B-8 called in. bet between B-8 and company president: Robinson Crusoe challenge.
6.B-8 probably not on island, according to “I.” Company president disappears.
Three policemen Sannin no keikan / Yoshiyuki Junnosuke (1924-1994)–
I: Recalls bar scene.
Miki: gay-boy girl with I at bar. Breasts revealed.
Conversation on spoon-bending; the war years, believing the irrational.
Three cops come, snoop a bit, leave. Final comment: Miki says again uniforms turn him on.
Onnagata (1957)/ Mishima Yukio (1925-1970)–
Masuyama: Mishima, classical literature graduated student
Mangiku: onnagata, plays Yukihima in “Kinkakuji,” “Dōjōji” “Imoseyama”
Toddler-hunting Yōji-gari (1965) / Kono Taeko (1926- )–
3rd person narrator.
Hayashi Akiko: hates little girls. Obsessive love for little boys. 30 plus. Music school, vocalist. Speaks, translates Italian. S+M. had TB. Lacks maternal urges. Fantasizes about man in 20s beating 8 yr old boy. Woman commands man to beat boy. Intestines spill out. Squashes body to death. Sasaki return. Whips Akiko. Neighbors hear, come to door. Akiko cools down, feels sick. Goes to bath house. Sees boys. Sasaki doesn’t know about her boy-fetish. Sees boy, 3 yr, eating watermelon, “like biting into flesh.” Sucks boys saliva, sweat from melon. Gives watermelon to Akiko, flees. The end.
Sasaki: boyfriend, 2 yrs. Younger. S+M. off to Hiroshima.
Noguchi Masayo- opera singer.
Noguchi Shinichi: son of opera singer, 4 yr.
Mr. Carp Koi-san (1985)/ Mukoda Kuniko –
Shiomura: husband. Takes Mamoru to Ikebukuro to snoop around Tsuyuko’s neighborhood. Returns to find fish dead.
“Shumai” Mayumi: daughter, in music school.
Mamoru: 11 year old son.
Tsuyuko: 30-year old. Ikebukuro. Shiomura’s old lover. Leaves carp at door (“Mr.Carp”)
Question: “terebi” and “wan-wan” responses of young boy?
The duel Kettō (1968) / Kaiko Takeshi (1930-1989)–
Beach. 2 men.
Snakeman: shows fight between a mongoose and a habu-snake.
Prize stock （飼育、1958）/ Oe Kenzaburo (1935- ) –
Opening scene: village crematorium. Digging up bones. Enemy plane overhead; shot down; black sole survivor. They rear him, admire him as a prize stock.
I: from “village.”
Harelip: from the “town.”
Father: hunter. Kills black man w/ ax in end.
“clerk”: one legged man of the town.
Prize stock: a beast, with huge “heroic” penis.
A very strange, enchanted boy Fushigina shōnen (1985)/ Tsushima Yuko (daughter of Dazai Osamu; 1947- )
Nat King Cole song intro.
Michie: single mother
6-year old boy: obsessed with infinity.
Children wear the dream of their mothers. Boring story.
The elephant vanishes Zō ga shōmetsu suru (1987)/ Murakami Haruki (1949- )
I: 31, married. Last to see elephant. Spying on elephant and caretaker.
She: met her at company party. 26, married.
“I” watches elephant slowly shrink. Parts w/ her after telling story. Awkward talk on phone. Decides not to meet.
Desert dolphin Sabaku no iruka (1992)/ Shimada Masahiko (1961- )–
Karaoke bar. Third-rate moral tale about angels returned to earth.
I: angel. Ten years ago exiled to earth. Can’t return to heaven, so vows to bring Heaven down to earth. Nearly became dolphin. Instead became fisherman, Umihiko. 41 then, still 41. lame commentary on money=love on Earth.
Middle-aged man: at karaoke.
Grey suit man: fellow angel. Puppy dog eyes. Sweet voice. Chose to come to earth. Ageless, namess, nation-less.
Assigns friend name Sandy River. Gives him 3 volumes. Parts. Suddenly the street sounds become music.
Dreaming of Kimchee Kimuchi no yume (1992)/ Yoshimoto banana (1964- )
I: woman. Begins with comments about women’s magazines, “affairs” articles. Married lover two years ago. Feelings of guilt toward lover’s ex-wife. Lives with sister before moving in with him. Jealous/guilt-ridden until epiphanic moment (jealousy: perhaps a result of lack of energy).
Him: unfaithful tendencies.
Style: occasional metaphysical intrusions upon the story. Also, narrative hints at something, makes you wait until you forget about what was hinted at, then surprises you with it several pages later. Also, epiphanic moments.
Also see films: “Sansho the Bailiff” by Mizoguchi Kenji, 1954; Odd Obsession (based on the key), Ichikawa Kon, 1959; Makioka Sisters, 1983, Ichikawa Kon市川崑; Black Rain; Wandering Life (partially based on Hayashi Fumiko’s “Accordion and the Fish Town”), directed by Naruse Mikio, 1962; Ichikawa Kon’s “conflagration” (kinkakuji).
The Showa anthology : modern Japanese short stories / edited by Van C. Gessel, Tomone Matsumoto. Imprint Tokyo : Kodansha International Tokyo : Distributed by Kodansha International/USA through Harper & Row, 1985
Continuity of Shōwa literature with native tradition.
Ibuse’s “Kuchisuke no tani” (1929).
Kajii Motojirō’s “Kōbi” (1931).
Ishikawa Jun’s “Moon Gems” “Meigetsushu” 1946. modernist. Fugen. Edo Tenmei period (1781-8) influence, bunjin influence. Nagai Kafū-based character. Defy the times-stories, including “Song of Mars” “Last of literati.”
Yoshiyuki Junnosuke (1924-)
Best works: Rensaku short stories: Kigi wa midori ka (1958); Yūgure Made (1978).
See: Konishi Jin’ichi’s “History of Japanese Lit”; Pechstein
Modern Japanese culture : the insider view / Leith Morton. Imprint South Melbourne, Vic. : Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2003.
part 1 on Mishima,
part 2 on Ōe, anal sex.
Takahashi Gen’ichirō; Mishima’s Kinkakuji: burning Kinkakuji is an “objectification of the dilemma of that generation” (163). Against tradition. Nakamura Mitsuo 中村光男(1911-88).
See: Marjorie Perloff’s “Poetics of Indeterminacy”; Karatani Kōjin
Low city, high city : Tokyo from Edo to the earthquake / Edward Seidensticker. London: Allen Lane, 1983.
1657. 明暦の大火。Edo castle burns, 100,000 dead. Restored 1659.1855.1894.1923.2006(?)
1. The End and the Beginning
2. Civilization and Enlightenment
3. Double Life
4. Decay of the Decadent
5. Low City, High City
6. Taishō Look
Kotsukappara execution grounds. 100,000-200,000 executed during Edo. Near Minami-senju station. Also see: Jokanji nagekomi-dera memorializing fire victims and 25,000 Yoshiwara hookers abandoned there (Minowa-eki; Nagai Kafū associations).
Murderess: Takahashi Oden. Harada Kinu (O-kinu).
Tanizaki’s dark streets. 1st taste of west at Nikolai cathedral (194), in Kanda. “summer” house English school (139-140).
See 斉藤録雨 Saitō Ryokuu (1867-1904). See Tanizaki’s “Setsuyō zuihitsu” (Osaka essays) 1935.
Kudan hill shōkonsha becomes Yasukuni jinja.
See: Asukayama, one of 5 original parks in edo.
Kanda festival, Taira Masakado, 10th century Kantō general.
Reading against culture : ideology and narrative in the Japanese novel / David Pollack.
Politics, ideology, culture.
Part I: Deviant Self—Tanizaki’s 蓼食う虫.
関西 AXIS 関東
京都―大阪―神戸 巡礼 (pilgrimage) to 淡路 (folk)
“Volk” ideology of 柳田国生 Yanagita Kunio (1875-1962).
Against tradition. Anti-Confucian novel. Fascist-nostalgia.
American stories / Nagai Kafu ; translated and with an introduction by Mitsuko Iriye. Imprint New York : Columbia University Press, c2000. 「アメリカ物語, 1908, 1sted.]
September 24, 1903- July 1908 (last year in France).
Long-time advocate of Zola, Beaudalaire, Poe
Sickened by 独り善しがり、独善的Japanese Christians.
Critical of feminist “enlightened” women for being to moral, self-righteous; critical also of self-effacing docile housewife.
Late Edo survives only in pleasure quarters (xxiv).
“the de Tocqueville of Japan”
Kafu the Scribbler : the life and writings of Nagai Kafu, 1879-1959 / [by] Edward Seidensticker. Imprint Stanford, Calif. : Stanford University Press, 1965
Ch 1: Beginnings
Quotes from “Sneers” “Ocha no ato”
Influence: see Tamenaga Shunsui 為永春水 (1790-1843). 戯作家.
Last of old city destroyed in flood of 1910, fire of 1911.
早稲田文学journal, naturalist VS. 三田文学(bg. 1910) of 慶応大学, with 荷風、森鴎外、谷崎。
幸徳秋水 Kōtoku Shūsui, 1871-1911. Socialist writer put to death for role in Meiji assassination plot.
Ch 2: Exile
Chapter 3: Return
Chapter 4: Withdrawal
Chapter 5: Stragglers
Chapter 6: The Nineteen-twenties
Chapter 7: The 30s
Chapter 8: the 40s and after
PART II: The WRITINGS
Sumida Gawa; appreciation of 浮世絵, 江戸演劇の特徴
Peony Garden “Botan no kyaku”
Coming Down with Cold, “Best story” “dying geisha in dying world”
Tidings from Okubo: Excerpts, 15th c. 随筆style, pleasures of solitude.
Rivalry: from Ch 12
Quiet Rain Ame shōshō
(first revised for publication in 1921 in Shinshōsetsu).
Chinese poetry references; letters to women, Kohan (Ohan); reminiscences;
Yō-san, Kafū’s companion through the rains, “has been identified as Momiyama Teigo, for a time Kafū’s publisher, and the man he was visiting the day Yaeji walked out on him” (Seidensticker’s note, 102).
Strange Tale from East of River, Bokutō kidan
Decoration (first pub., 1946 in Shinsei; see 160)
Dancing Girl: Ch 10 (published in Tenbō, 1946)
The Scavengers (published in Chūō Kōron 1949)
Other stories: “Cowpeas” (Yahazusō, 1916, life w/ wife who abandons him.); Yanagi sakura (set in late Edo, 柳亭種彦Ryūtei Tanehiko, 1783-1842, victim of 天保改革 の節倹命sumptuary laws of 1842, p. 60.
小説作法 “How to Write a Novel”: ch. 6: “Bad as analytic work” (100).
Rejects Aristotle’s primacy of plot.
雨ショウショウ: one of best. Half essay, half novel; filled w/ letters, poems, etc. compare to Akutagawa’s def. of novel.
Henkikan Manroku, ’20-21. Humorous work in Edo tradition (104).
Shitaya no hanashi (no sōwa); 1926 as book: life of two Confucian poetry scholars.
Seidensticker’s prejudices, offensive comments: p. 93.
Iwaya Sazami 巌谷小波 (1870-1933). 童話作家。Mokuyōkai. Nagai’s early mentor.
Kubota Mantarō 久保田万太郎 (1889-1963) 小説家・劇作家・俳人. Young Mita mbr.
1915, Natsuyugata, banned novel. Slattern novel: “first good heroine.” (76). O-chiyo slut.
Yojōhan no shitabari 四畳半のしたばり? Edo porn. “What I Found Under the Papering in the Little Room.” Got him arrested after war.
断腸。Sobriquet. Nom de plum—“dyspepsia house.” Diary 断腸てい kept 1917-death.
preference for failures and outcasts, best friend Inoue Seiichi, alcoholic.
Magazine 文明 contributions. 腕比べ in 1916-7. elegant 下町(p. 86).
阿亀笹 Okamezasa (Dwarf Bamboo) in 中央公論 (1918). Sleazy districts.褌fundoshi ban at beaches.
Ame Shōshō, “one of best novel of 20s”
A strange tale from East of the River and other stories / Translated [from the Japanese] by Edward Seidensticker. Imprint Tokyo : C.E. Tuttle Co., 
The River Sumida— Sumidagawa (1909: in magazine Shinshōsetsu)
Late summer- early autum- winter- spring- summer
Higuchi Ichiyō influence in Chōkichi/O-ito story. Ch 2-7: bildungsromen story of Chokichi/O-ito. Ch 7-9: Otoyo seeks Ragetsu for consultation about son wanting to be actor. Takes omens from Asakusa temple. Meets with Chōkichi, advises against becoming actor. Chōkichi wanters streets, narrative stream, recalls Shunsui’s “Calendar of Plum Blossoms.” Ch 10—summer, Senzoku and Yoshiwara underwater. Ragetsu visits sister, finds Chokichi ill, taken to hospital. Stays at house, roams about, finds letter. Wonders if Chokichi intentionally got sick, since he couldn’t have O-ito nor be an actor.
Ragetsu regrets advice, vows alliance with boy.
3rd person narrative:
Shōfūan Ragetsu: teacher of poetry. Midsummer visit to sister at Imado (Asakusa), drinking, walking through winding streets, peeping, reciting verses to self, nostalgic old profligate. Once heir to pawnshop in Koishikawa. Childless.
Otaki: his wife. Once a concubine.
Otoyo: music teacher, sister of Ragetsu. Has to rebury father whose old grave’s being dug up (Komagome to Yanaka or Somei). Widowed. Son Chōkichi. Poor, can barely afford son’s education.
Chōkichi: son, 17. sickly type. Used to date O-ito, who’s now to be a geisha. Waits for her on old bridge. Pursues her around town. Hates sports, discipline of dorm life, etc. plays hooky, hangs around theater, actors. Decides to become actor, mother hysterical.
Kichi: son of barber, old friend, now actor in Western style. Playboy.
O-ito: daughter of pastry shop owner. To be geisha.
The peony garden—
Coming down with a cold.—
Tidings from Okubo: excerpts.—
Rivalry: from chapter 12.—
A strange tale from east of the River.—
The decoration.— (1942, published in ’46)
“Opera House” dressing room. The entire imperial experiment reduced to this.
I narrator: cameraman, backstage access to dancers’ room. Naked women all around. Describes for us (the audience) what it’s like inside. 20 sprawled out nude, cleaning, nursing babies, etc.
Man with Pocked-mark face (probably Korean): delivers food, commodities to girls. Has picture taken in beginning. Shows war decorations. Fought Russians in Manchuria, 1904.
Young actor: asks old man to show decoration. Acts in some war play onstage.
The dancing girl: chapter 10.—
The Scavengers (1948, published 1949)
Post-war realism. Sōbu-sen from Noda to Funabashi, always crowded with scavengers, black marketers, rice/sweet potatoe hunters, etc.
3rd person narrator.
Conversation between two women. Talk of air raids, older woman suddenly falls dead. Younger woman swaps food (hers is worth more) and carries on down road. Runs into man, makes transaction, carries on.
Recontextualizing texts : narrative performance in modern Japanese fiction / Atsuko Sakaki. Imprint Cambridge, Mass. : Harvard University Asia Center : Distributed by Harvard University Press, 1999.
Intro: rereading text contextually; speech act theory applied to five modern novelists. Hitherto unexplored (hitherto: thematic concerns and political contexts) narratology.
Ch 1: Debates on Kokoro
Ch 2: Obsessed with Inscription; Ibuse Masuji’s 黒い雨
Ch 3: Unmaking the Tableau: Sōseki’s 草枕 and Gender/Genre Politics
Ch 4: Thinking Beauty, Unseeing Scholar: Ōgai’s 雁, displaced narrative
Ch 5: Doing things with words: Acts and Effects in T.J.’s 卍 (1928-30 in 改造).
See: “On Narrative,” Mitchell: Barbara Smith’s essay.
Koda Rohan and the origin of modern Japanese romanticism / Kyoko Kurita.
Thesis (Ph. D.)--Yale University, 1992. Reproduction Photocopy. Ann Abor, Mich University Microfilms International (UMI), 1994. 22 cm.
Koda Rohan / Chieko Irie Mulhern. Imprint Boston : Twayne Publishers, c1977
連環記 (1940) “Record of Linked Rings.” Or “Chain of Circumstances” (keene’s tr.)
“Destiny” and “Renkanki” best (148).
147-8: Bashō commentary, 25 years in making (pub. 1947).
Fiction destroyed by Naturalism (147).
1890- “Encounter w/ Skull”
1891- “5 Storied Pagoda”
Heain characters in Renkanki: Kamo no Yasutane, later priest Jakushin, author of Jap. Records of Rebirth in Pure Land; Poetess Akazome Emon (Tales of Glory alleged author); Abbot Jakushō, 30 yrs. In china, religious awakening through sex.
Compare to Tanizaki’s “Shōshōshigemoto” (1950), which was influenced by this. “contemplation of corpse scene derived from this.” Historical bio and fiction genres.
“literary Indra’s net—a celestial net of precious jewels described in the Kegon sutra to illustrate the principle of interdependence and interpretation of all existences” (110). Each jewel reflects entire cosmos, and is dependent on other links.
Kegon doctrine of reciprocal origination and simultaneity in Parable of the Golden Lion by Fa Tsang (643-712.
1 man= all men
1 man=all 6 beings (god, man, fighting spirits, beasts, hungry demons, the damned).
1st chain link structure: “Minute Storehouse of Life” ; 2nd, Renkanki. Based on karma’s resembling a chain of linked rings.
See: “Leaving the Hermitage” (1925); “The Pagoda” (1909).
See: ‘modern Japanese short stories,” Seidensticker’s “Black Kimono.”
See: Mulhern’s other translations.
Pagoda ; Skull ; and Samurai : three stories / by Koda Rohan ; translated from the Japanese with an introduction and notes by Chieko Irie Mulhern. Imprint Ithaca, N.Y. : China-Japan Program, Cornell University, c1982. Kōda Rohan (1867-1947)
Kōro jidai (1889-1903).
5 phases of Kōda Rohan’s fiction:
Idealistic phase (1889-93). “best fiction”
Mature phase (1893-6). Fūryū Mijinzō. Chain link. Life as is.
Stagnant phase (1896-1903). Uncomfortable w/ genbunitchi. Preferred gazoku setchū 雅俗折衷。
Syncretic phase (1903-1919). Long novels. ‘Sora Utsu nami’
Comeback: “Unmei” (1911). “rokubushū” Bashō commentary.
1. Gojū no tō (1891): 35 sections.
2. Tai dokuro “Encounter With Skull” (1890): 2 souls encounter each other. Jūbei (heavy man), Genta (lumber), Seikichi (pure, lucky), Eiji (sharp man), Rōen (radiant spher), Okichi (good luck), Onami (wave).
“I” narrator, “Rohan,” companion of dew. 5-foot snail. Tochigi-ken/Gunma setting. Recalls 1890, April in Nikkō. Shirane-san. Climb. Wildwood, stubborn. Goal: purify world, shred 5 desires. Fainds hut w/ woman. 1.5 miles to Ogawa.
Tae, ethereal beauty, fox-woman. Suna no onna-esque. Only one bed. He recites “elimination of desire.” Bijin only “flesh covered skull.”
He fujōkan practices with her in bed. Offers to be his wet nurse.
Part 3, Tae tells own story. From Tokyo, wealthy. Parents die. Reads classics, hates Genji, Narihira, etc. letter from mother. Resists desire, cold-hearted. Resists nobleman’s offers, he dies. She wanders to mountain hut, led by his ghost.
See: women who burn faces to renounce world.see last quote: yo ni suterarete, yo wo sutetsu.
3. Higeotoko: Bearded Samurai. Selected allusions. Portraits of Oda Nobunaga (1534-82) and Tokugawa Ieyasu (1542-1616)
The myth of Japanese uniqueness / Peter N. Dale. Imprint London : Routledge, 1988
Ch 6 on Tanizaki’s Bunshō dokuhon. Tanizaki’s fascist ideas (p. 81). Anti-China, pro-Yamato.
See Natsume Sōseki’s Wagahai quote (221, Shincho).
"First, they implicitly assume that the Japanese constitute a culturally and socially homogeneous racial entity, whose essence is virtually unchanged from prehistoric times down to the present day. Secondly, they presuppose that the Japanese differ radically from all other known peoples. Thirdly, they are conspicuously nationalistic, displaying a conceptual and procedural hostility to any mode of analysis which might be seen to derive from external, non-Japanese sources. In a general sense then, nihonjinron may be defined as works of cultural nationalism concerned with ostensible 'uniqueness' of Japan in any aspect, and which are hostile to both individual experience and the notion of internal socio-historical diversity.”
Tanizaki’s preference of 大和語
See: T’s dokuhon. Grammatical sentence not necessarily a good sentence.
Mushanokōji Saneatsu 武者小路実篤 (1885-1976)
1. Love and Death, 1939. tr. 1967 (horrible). Tr. Saburo Yamamura. “I” protagonist and Natsuko, who dies while together in Europe. Recalls events from 21 years ago.
2. Friendship, 1958. tr, Ryuzo Matsumoto (horrible). Nojima, hero. Ōmiya, his bosom friend and rival in love. Sugiko, heroine. Part I, Part II.
3. Two Fables of Japan, tr. Junichi Natori, 1957. 2 plays: Hanasaka-jiji; Kachi-kachi yama “Rabbit’s Revenge”
4. The Passion, and Three Other Plays, tr. Noboru Hidaka. 1933 publ. Other plays by Kunio Kishida, Sensaburo Suzuki, Kikuchi Kan.
The historical fiction of Mori Ogai / edited by David Dilworth, J. Thomas Rimer ; additional contributions by Richard Bowring ... [et al.]. Imprint Honolulu : University of Hawaii Press, c1991
-Okitsu yagoemon no isho (Last Testament of Okitsu Yagoemon; 1st version, 2nd version)
-Gojiingahara no katakiuchi (The Vendetta at Gojiingahara)
-Sakai jiken (Incident at Sakai)
-Sanshō dayū (Sanshō the Steward)
-Rekishi sono mama to rekishibanare
-Saigo no ikku
Youth and other stories / Mori Ogai ; edited by J. Thomas Rimer. Imprint Honolulu : University of Hawaii Press, c1994. Mori Ōgai: 1862–1922.
The dancing girl = Maihime -- A sad tale = Utakata no ki -- The courier = Fumizukai -- Exorcising demons = Tsuina -- Half a day = Hannichi -- Snake = Hebi -- Kompira -- Play = Asobi -- Under reconstruction = Fushinchu -- A bachelor = Dokushin -- Daydreams = Moso -- Ghost stories = Hyaku monogatari -- Two friends = Futari no tomo -- The tower of silence = Chinmoku no to -- The dining room = Shokudo -- As if = Ka no yo ni -- The gold coin = Kinka -- Hanako -- Cups = Sakazuki -- The pier = Sanbashi -- Masks = Kamen -- The ashes of destruction = Kaijin -- Youth = Seinen.
I. First experiments: 1890-1891
The dancing girl = Maihime (1890).
Love, madness, death. Individuality and state. “I” narrator. 5 years ago got order to go to Europe . ..
Elise, heroine. Ōta Toyotarō太田豊太郎, “I” narrator, recalling events as he returns home on ship. Emerging “real self” felt abroad.
Doesn’t get along w/ other Prussians. Solitary, wanders about, runs into girl 16 or 17, crying against church. Elise (Weigert?)エリス. Leads narrator to house in dire straits (man took advantage of her while working at Victoria theatre): “lend me money!”
Rumors spread by fellow Japanese about visiting actresses, theatres. Terminate his post: come home! Mother dying.
Pupil-teacher relationship between narrator and Elise. Educate the foolish girl.
The crisis: stay or go?
Friend Aizawa Kenkichi, private secretary to Count Amakata in Tokyo, hooks him up with newspaper job in Berlin; becomes lodger at Elise’s place.
Girl who seems she could “dance in the palm of your hand” (16).
Wilhelm I and Friedrich III die “in quick succession.”
Then winter of 1888.
Elise begins fainting.
Letter from count: see me immediately.
Remonstrated by Count Amakata for getting involved with a “mere chit of a girl” (18).
Elise pregnant; narrator off to Russia. Receives letters from Elise.
Could a western woman be so in love with a Japanese in 1888??
“True self” vs. obligations. Giri vs. ninjo.
Wanders about; passes out for several weeks..? Elise sick and mad after hearing narrator’s promise to Aizawa about leaving her. Ophelia-scene. Leaves her, pregnant.
A sad tale = Utakata no ki – 1890.
Munich café setting. 3rd person. King Ludwig II of Bavaria (1845-86), patron of Wagner. See Harada Naojirō (1863-99), model for Kose, painter. Marie, his lover in Munich (16-17 years old). Julius Exter (1863-1939), young painter, friend of Harada. Kose, bystander protagonist.
2 Romantic deaths of 2 idealists, King Ludwig and Marie.
Too articulate in German! Confident. Face of pitiful flower girl. “I’m flower girl” goddess Bavaria-Marie links (Fraulein Hansl)? Melodrama. Tell life story, Fraulein!”
Mother, Marie, object of love of King who goes mad. Father painter at Court, impoverished after father’s death. Almost raped. Hansl, fisherman, saves day. Then chambermaid for rich Englishman. Reads Deautsch literature.
She takes him to river where she nearly dies. Kokuhaku. Her “marble veins” “golden brown hair” like a horse.
“row me for a bit” they run into the king. Both fall in water. Kill injured; Kose takes her to Hansl’s house, too late. Both die. Marie’s death overshadowed by King’s in papers.
The courier = Fumizukai –
Kobayashi, young military officer. Obsever, bystander role.
II. Self-Portraits of the Artist. After 2 decade silence, began writing again in 1909. [translation Hans C. Anderson during that time; spent years of exile in Kyushu]
Exorcising demons = Tsuina –1909.
Speculative essay. I narrator. Nietzche paraphrase at end. Thoughts at night—unreliable. What to write? Zuihitsu. Naturalists, being young, always think about women. “twilight of art.”
Half a day = Hannichi – 1909.
Dark commentary on marriage (w/2nd wife)
Husband and 3 women: wife, child, “that person” (mother-in-law).
Snake = Hebi= 1909.
“Ore” I narrator. Bridge between reader and character he wishes to reveal. Man hurt by women. 1909.
At lodge, noisy. Rural people. Mountain eki in Shinshū 信州、信濃（しなの）国。今の長野県。
Old servant explains death of master’s mother; in mourning.
Old servant Seikichi (narrator 2)’s story:
Hozumi family. Wealthy. Predecessor’s wife (died 27 days ago), generous, devoted. Leaves things to Seikichi after husband dies. Predecessor’s wife has child at 39: “young master” (Chitaru). Goes to Waseda, takes bride Otoyo. Unambitious, indifferent.
Otoyo bored of dinner talk (daily antedote of exemplary behavior). Hozumi informed; Hozumi house becomes silent house.
Narrator 1 again: Hozumi Chitaru enters. Addresses narrator 1, scholar. Tells of tension between mother and his wife. Wife now insane after seeing snake.
Thoughts on present-day women: they don’t admit authority.
On men: men are rational, understand law of advantage/disadvantage. Women must be restrained by force. Otherwise, like babies, they destroy themselves (98).
Wife’s insanity: from first day of memorial service when snake looked at her. Narrator 1 catches snake. Leaves next morning. “see a doctor in Tokyo,” he tells them.
Daughter-mother-in-law tension theme (also in “hannichi”). Misogyny.
Snake device: also in “Gan” (1911).
Kompira – 1909.
see konpira-sama in Shikoku. One year after Ōgai’s infant son died of whooping cough. Ono, philosophy professor. Anti-superstition till kid gets sick.
Play = Asobi –1910. very good. Ironic self-portrait. Kimura appears later in “Shokudō”. Social critique. Charlie Chaplin in Modern Times. Civil servant, Kimura. 3rd person.
Wakes at 6:00. at desk, then off to office, everything is play. Kokkeibanashi. “you lack nervous temperament” others tell him.
Under reconstruction = Fushinchū – 1910. fading relationship with German girl. Meets at restaurant under construction. All of Japan, too, under construction. 3rd person. Read w/ “Tsuina”. Counceler Watanabe, leaving Kabuki theatre, looks for restaurant. Seiyōkan hotel. Meets German woman, singer. Sleeping w/ Pole. Kiss? No, this is Japan!
A bachelor = Dokushin –
Daydreams = Mōsō – 1911
Self-sketch; bystander, “eternal malcontent”; Hōjōki-esque.
Setting: Kazusa 上総、今の千葉。Beach, old man. Autumn nearing, morning.
3rd person: first and last section
middle section: 1st person mōsō. Life in Berlin.
Friend’s death. Life as performance. Private self vs. social self. “barbarians do not fear death.” I must be a barbarian. . .
Shopenhauer, Hartmann, Phillip Mainlaender.
Also see: Cesare Borgia from Nietzche’s Ubermensch. Brunetiere, Catholic, predicted end of science. Elias Metschnikoff, optimistic philosopher.
Ghost stories = Hyaku monogatari – 1911.
famous example of “bystander” fiction.
Narrator: presumably Ōgai. Reflecting on past visit to 100 candle ghost party. Heads there around 3:00. Tokyo. Terajima. Boathouse up river to house.
Shikamaya, host of party.
依田学海(1833-1909) Yoda Gakkai, among famous guests.
Other strange, famous guests; all in a daze, making small talk.
Antedote of man who stopped smiling to remain impassive.
What kind of man is this Shikamaya? Kibun of our time; profligate; depressed; bloodshot eyes.
Geisha Tarō, Shikamaya’s geisha, most beautiful in Tokyo.
“my friend” Ozaki Kōyō appears.
Recalls party at Kogetsu Restaurant w/ Kōyō 2 years back and Kenyūsha 硯友社
Osada Shūtō, translator.
Bystander nature of narrator. Shikamaya and him= 2 bystander sould mates, “like old friends.”
Why is Tarō so faithful to Shikamaya, an old bankrupt profligate?
Narrator leaves. 2, 3 days later; inquires about rest of party; Shikamaya, fellow bystander, retires to bedroom in middle of party. Bystanders’ mocking of others.
Two friends = Futari no tomo
III. The Demands of the Day: 1910-1912: Kōtoku Shūsui (1871-1911), distinguished socialist. Execution “deeply repugnant” to Mori Ōgai. Didactive, yes. Art w/ ideas.
The tower of silence = Chinmoku no tō –1910
(on censors). Dark sketch on “subversive books”; naturalism and socialism reader’s corpses taken to tower. List of dangerous writers in west.
The dining room = Shokudō –
alter ego, Kimura (see Asobu),bystander. Didaction: good vs. bad socialism. Gov’t agency dining room. Talk of European nihilism, anarchism. 3rd person.
As if = Ka no yō ni – 1912
published same year as General Nogi’s suicide. 3rd person
Title from Hans Vaihinger’s (1855-1932; behave “as if” noumena correspond to phenomena) philosophical work.
Aya Kōji, painter, “typifies fine arts.”
Hidemaro, intellectual, resembles Sōseki’s protagonist in Kōjin, 1912. 3rd person.
Yuki- parlor maid
Hidemaro- graduate of Gakushūin
President Schmidt- Berlin University President
Hidemaro sent to Europe by father, Viscount Gojō. Berlin; India; Marseilles; Paris. 3 yr in Berlin.
Theodosius, history of Protestantism.
On religion; need for religion. Spirits to be worshipped as if they really existed (Confucius). P. 238.
Line between myth and history
Q and A session w/ mother, father. Seasons pass. Father-son gulf. Life’s work to write history of Japan, separate myth from history.
Ayakōji, the artist arrives.
Lectures to friend. Als alb; comme si, ka no yōni. Primacy of untruths-philosophy (249-50). Berkeley-esque “as if” skepticism. Dialectic, futari de.
Hidemaro’s return to Shimbashi.
IV. Later Experiments
The gold coin = Kinka – 1909/
“one of Ōgai’s most successful brief stories.” Hachi: poor, illiterate drunk outsider looking in. 3rd person. Disfigured in fire from burn. 8pm, waits till 1 before trying to rob house for a drink. Army officers playing go. Col. Arakawa. Waiting, Hachi nods off and on again. Dreams about boss Kuma. Caught relieving self by servant who slipped away at night. Let off by Arakawa.
Rodin and Hanako, introduced by Kubota, Japanese medical student. Hanako, not a beauty, poses nude.
Cups = Sakazuki –
a “little prose poem”. 1909 “muted protests against . . . European naturalism, [which] tended to emphasize the sordid and the sexual in their works.” Main among this genre is “Vita Sexualis”—main attack on naturalism, 1909.
Maeterlinck influence. A Puvis de Chavannes mural. 8 girls around spring.
The pier = Sanbashi –1910.
impressionistic sketch. Appeared in American “Paulownia” in translation in 1918. pier at Yokohama, a woman seeing husband, a count, off to London. eyes grow larger and larger as he leaves.
Masks = Kamen –
Ōgai’s interest in theater—Kabuki, Nō, after return from Europe in 1889. Also western theater—translation of Ibsen, Strindberg, Wedekind (all considered avant-garde). Need for self-understanding and self-concealment.
The ashes of destruction = Kaijin, 1912
“fourth and last of Ōgai’s novels” unfinished.
1909-Vita Sexualis (satire on naturalism)
1910-11- Seinen (bildungsroman; nature of creativity)
1911-12- Kaijin. 19 sections. 3rd person. Setsuzo.
V. Youth = Seinen. 1910-11.
modeled after Goethe’s “Wilhelm Meister’s Apprenticeship” 1796. also: Sōseki’s “Sanshirō”
Characters: Hirata Fuseki, modeled on Sōseki.
Koizumi Junichi, protagonist from provinces.
Vita sexualis / Translated from the Japanese by Kazuji Ninomiya & Sanford Goldstein. Imprint Rutland, Vt. : C.E. Tuttle Co., 
Japanese literature : a historical outline / Adapted [and translated by] Edward Putzar from Nihon bungaku, Hisamatsu Senichi, gen. ed. A Translation of Hisamtsu’s “Nihon Bungaku.” Imprint Tucson : University of Arizona Press, .
Intro by A. Chambers: 1st balanced history since W.G. Aston’s pioneer work in 1889.
Ancient Period, AD 400-794
Norito and Senmyō, etc.
Late Ancient Period 794-1185
Medieval Period 1185-1600
Modern Period 1600-1868
A history of Japanese literature : from the Man'yoshu to modern times / Shuichi Kato ; translated & edited by Don Sanderson. Imprint Richmond, Surrey : Japan Library, 1997. tr. McClellan?
1. Turning Point
3. Age of Industrialization
Lukacs, Georg. The theory of the novel : a historico-philosophical essay on the forms of great epic literature / Translated from the German by Anna Bostock. Imprint Cambridge, Mass. : M.I.T. Press, 
The Japanese novel of the Meiji period and the ideal of individualism / Janet A. Walker. Imprint Princeton, N.J. : Princeton University Press, c1979
Part I: Ideal of the Meiji Novel
Part II: Shimazaki Tōson and the Ideal of the Novel
The quilt and other stories / by Tayama Katai ; translated and with an introduction by Kenneth G. Henshall. Imprint [Tokyo] : University of Tokyo Press, c1981
-pro-nature, anti-society doctine: German naturalism (Gerhart Hauptmann; Herman Sudermann, “quintessential nature). Ibsen, Nietzche, Tolstoy (primacy of individual).
Katai finds a more balanced view of nature in his works; view changes throughout career.
b. Gunma (1872). Fallen samurai, father killed in Seinan civil war of 1877. romantic, lyrical leanings as youth. Good-for-nothing. Seeks patronage from Ozaki Kōyō (1867-1903).
-senshibankō 千思万考 magazine, Emi Suiin, ed. Sympathetic to Katai, the self-pitying fatalist.
“fiction of altered fact” criticism.
Romantic works published in “Bungakukai” in 1890s. impressed by Heine, Wordsworth, Zola (admires Zola’s bluntless, frankness, rather than “objective” scientific style). Tolstoy influence, translation of “The Cossacks). Maupassant’s blunt descriptions of nature, man in raw.
Yanagita Kunio arranges marriage for him. Regrets it. She’s “old-fashioned, unstimulating.” Works as editor.
Wife, children, attitude change. Nature as it is! No petty subjectivity! (sasai na shukan). No interference from author!
-“superflous man” of Turgenev, Goncharov. Naturalist, Neitzche’s “superman.”
-see Hōgestu’s essays on Naturalism.
Jūemon derived from Sudermann’s “Regine” or “the Cat’s Bridge” (1890). Modern-hippie aesthetic. Nietzchean mood; Turgenev “ Sportsman’s Diary”
-grows sick of wife; wishes her dead. Letters from Okada Michiyo: young girl, affair, inspiration for “Futon”
-Hauptmann’s “Lonely People” (1891) influence. Misunderstood by old-fashioned wife, has affair.
Shōjobyō: meant to be series; taken as comedy, Sōseki-esque mock-hero.
Shōjobyō: beginning of “real Katai”: no sentimentalism, which arises from suppression of desire, puratinism.
Shimazaki Tōson’s “Hakai” (1906). Can’t be left behind! Writes “Futon” in 10 days, July 1907. “neo-shizenshugi” (clash of self w/ society theme)—I novel. Tōson’s “Ie” follows in 1908. Katai’s “Sei” on mother. “Tsuma” on wife and sister-in-law.
“Shizen shugi no zento” essay in 1908.
Later advocates “heimen byōsha” theory, derived from Kleinmahlerei (arno holz); passivity of artist, transmitter of data. Zattafunpun. Maupasant’s “illusionism”: one can’t know another’s thoughts.
“Samui asa”: in many regards “finest work.”
2nd period: religion. Joris-Karl Huysmans. Accepts 無, accepts 我, but renounces assertive 我, resigned to absence of free-will. See geisha Iida Yone, mistress. Okada Michiyo.
Jūemon no saigo. May, 1902.
1. 3rd person. Turgenev talk. “I once met a man” one begins to tell story. Narrator 2: Tomiyama
2. frame story begins. School in Kōjimachi, “when I was 16. .” Training for military prep. School. Sokusei school. 2 country bumpkins in class; from Shinano, near Nagano, living in Ushigome. Befriends the 2. short one: Yamagata Kōzaburō. Other one: Sugiyama. Both ran away to Tokyo.
3. visits their place above bathhouses in Shiochō. Meets 3rd kid from Shinano: Nemoto Kōsuke, from disreputable, rich family. Sugiyama fades into ruins, boys grow apart.
4. 5 yrs. Later: narrator visits Nagano. Mt. Kōsha. Nemoto family search. Visits Kōsuke, now married. Yamagata, now a teacher. Sugiyama, swindler, now fighting the Chinese. Walks around peaceful village.
5. sees fire-drill. Baffled at spectacle. Runs into Kōsuke. Nemoto house. Kōsuke’s older, ugly wife brings tea, chat about fires, arson.
6. chat w/ Nemoto. Arsonist known: Jūemon and is hussy, 17. hussy does it for him. Chat about literature, etc. hear bell. Yamagata’s place on fire?
7. house burns. No pump. Arrives, fire controlled. Jūemon, let him drink himself to death. Spots arsonist.
8. Fujita Jūemon’s family wealthy. Spoiled by grandparents, father beheaded for murder. Oversized scrotum! Stung by bee! grandma dies. Nemoto Kōsuke telling him story. Red-light districts (yudanaka) Jūemon’s big balls can’t stay away from. Blows money. Time for wife; things go sorry; back to whoring; beats wife; falls in love w/ wife’s mistress? More debauchery. Visits Ageo Teishichi in Kamishioyama. Gives Jūemon a talk: start anew! Prison in Nagano for 6 years. Grows bolder. 1 more year for arson.
10. arrest him?!!?
11. narrator muses on man, nature, unnatural civilized man, Rousseau-esque. 6,000 years of man?? Description of swollen corpse, huge balls. Hussy takes corpse. Narrator alone sympathizes w/ “child of nature” hussy and corpse. Rousseau-esque talk.
12. whole village burns that night. Hussy found in flames. Suicide? Murdered by angry villagers? 7 years now past, narrator still makes visits to town.
The Quilt. Futon. 1907.
Chapters 1-11. 3rd person. “He”=Takenaka Tokio, 36, wife, 3 kids. Editor of geographical magazine.
Yoshiko, young student, fan of Tokio, 19, from Christian family in Bitchū, “modern high-collar girl,” object of desire.
1. setting: Koishikawa. Man of letters. References: Hauptmann’s “Lovnely People”; Turgenev “Faust”, etc.
2. sick of wife. Sees hot girls everywhere. Expects fan Yoshiko to be ugly. Surprised when she arrives in Tokyo in Feb. new modern englightened woman (desire to have by side, tickling man’s vanity) vs. yamato nadeshiko. Stays at Tokio’s for month, then moves
3. 1 and a half passes, now present. Lives in Kōjimachi; has male friends. Modern girls: Ibsen’s Nora, Turgenev’s Elena, T.J.’s Naomi. Yoshiko turns hade, seductive. Has lover, Tanaka Hideo, Dōshisha Student. Tokio wallows: “I am Turgenev’s superfluous man!” drinks.
4. letter from Yoshiko in new style. Tanaka coming to Tokyo.
5-11: Tokio snoops around, paranoid. Abuses wife. Finds out about affair w/ Tanaka. Brings Yoshiko’s family into it. Poses as “moral advisor” to get into her pants. Fails. Yoshiko goes back home. Last scene: he lies on her old bed, smelling “that familiar female smell.”
One Soldier. Ippeisotsu. 1908.
3rd person. “He,” soldier, sick in Manchū. Flashbacks to childhood, countryside, mother. Battle at Liaoyang. Crickets trigger more memories of mother, wife, other women, Kagurazaka, Nakachō (girl). Considers options: desertion, etc? prays, trapped in prison of war. Runs into 2 upper-privates. Changes course. Lost, he collapses, gazes at stares. Finds western buildings. Beri-beri bad. Legs ache. “the pain,” he cries, doctor comes at daybreak, soldier already dead. Morning-attack on Liaoyang already begun (1908).
3rd person. Sugita, hero, 38. Married to 25 year old “withered” wife. 2 kids. Obsessed with young girls on train. Romantic novelist, poet, working as editor for popular magazine. Setting: Yamanote-sen train. Last scene: train crowded, pushed out of cart, eyes fixed on girl. Run over by next train: dies in end.
1. someone run over. Train stops.
2. a child?
3. prose poem style. Blood, dismembered body, flowers.
4. women comment on it
5. view from train. New passengers informed. Witnesses alight; new conversation. China pink flowers.
Soldiers go to Gyōkeikan for something to do. Near sea. Nichirosensō-chū. Tourist spot.
Refined man in neighboring room, ill.
Boring slice-of-life story. Take picture w/ Kodak in end.
Kuruma no oto. 1908.
Samui Asa. 1914.
Family. Mouse-trap. Bed-time.
Morning. Mouse still there. Mom teases it with food. Boys drown mouse, march to school triumphantly.
Literary life in Tokyo, 1885-1915 : Tayama Katai's memoirs 'Thirty years in Tokyo' / translated with full annotations and an introduction by Kenneth G. Henshall. 1987.
布団 (1907) “The Quilt”; groundbreaking; rebellious “I”. Not a naturalist, but a writer at the heyday of Naturalism (1907-1910) (26).
Inspired by I novelist Alphonse Daudet’s 30 Years in Paris.
Great fire of Kanda 1892, April 9-10.
Note: full of mistakes, lies (1st translation), p. 80.
早稲田文学 magazine, 6 phases, 1891-1959.
しらがみ草紙, めさまし草 magazine.
See Maruzen; homo-lunatic 中西梅花 (1866-1898) 詩人
Kōda Rohan, Ozaki Kōyō; Doppo. Naturalists: Zola, Daudet, Maupassant.
Rousseau influence. Lay-on-table I novel.
平面描写 from Kleinmahlerei (miniature painting style).
“natural subjectivity”: death of cow=death of hero.
Also “Jūemon no saigo; ippeisotsu; shōjobyō; senro; shashin; mushi no oto. Samui asa.
Country teacher : a novel / by Tayama Katai ; translated by Kenneth Henshall. Imprint Honolulu : University of Hawaii Press, c1984
Seizō, 3rd person.
A thematic analysis of representative works by Tayama Katai / Frederick Richter.
Tokyo Rising, Seidensticker
The Shiga Hero (Wm. Sibley)
Koda Aya (Alan Tansman)
Essential Akutagawa (Seiji Lippit)
The Scarlet Gang of Asakusa (Kawabata)
Be A Woman: Hayashi Fumiko and Modern Japanese Women's literature
The Similitude of Blossoms (Charles Inouye, on Izumi Kyoka)
See Matthias Hoop’s “metatext on art of literature”
See T.J.’s essay. “mastery lies in perfecting the false and fictitious (uso)” (Feast, 104).
Literary Theory: A Very Short Introduction (Very Short Introductions)
Critical Theory Today : A User-Friendly Guide (Garland Reference Library of the Humanities) (Paperback)
Brownstein, Michael Clifford, 1946- Title Prophet of the inner life : Kitamura Tokoku and the beginnings of romanticism in modern Japanese literature Imprint [s.l. : s.n.], 1981
Ph.d. thesis. 中央図書館。
Liberalism in modern Japan : Ishibashi Tanzan and his teachers, 1905-1960 / Sharon H. Nolte. Imprint Berkeley : University of California Press, c1987.
Chapter 2: “Literature: Shimamura Hōgetsu’s Naturalism and its Liberal Critics”
Naturalism: flourished after war w/ Russia (1904-5)
Intended to be: modern, colloquial (genbunitchi), wide in scope, aesthetic and social (rather than in service to the state), provide new morality (in opposition to that provided by state, Confucianism (family/state/gender/social hierarchies), promote and develop the “kindai jiga”; advocates self, instincts, sexual liberation: “reverse images of the states’ model citizen” (68).
The Christian-Naturalist alliance: social(ist) ethic, 反日露戦争 sentiment
How popular was Naturalist movement? Hard to gauge. Main publisher: 中央公論.
New cult of “jiga”; similar to tabloid gossip, cult of celebrity.
Shimamura Hogetsu: orphan, poor as young man. B. Shimane-ken. Father, drunk, burned to death in fire. Waseda. Worked for Waseda-bungaku mag. Oxford and Berlin U 1902-5. joined Shōyō’s theater group Bungeikyōkai, produced Ibsen play.
Tatsuo Arima, historian.
Ishikawa Takuboku, critic of state
Tanaka Ōdō: 3 assertions of Naturalist movement: the present!; unity; satisfaction of desire (83)
Hasegawa Tenkei: “shizenha ni tai suru gokai” (replace “authority” w/ “reality”: see 明治文学全集、４３巻).
Culture and identity : Japanese intellectuals during the interwar years / edited by J. Thomas Rimer. Imprint Princeton, N.J. : Princeton University Press, c1990.
Part I. The Move Inward
Abe Jirō and “Diary of Santarō”
Part II. Culture and Society
Native Knowledge: Yanagita Kunio, Origuchi Shinobu, Takata Yasuma
Part III. Marxism and Cultural Criticism
Part IV. Japan in Asia
Part V. Art and Concept of Culture
Natsume Soseki; West and Japanese aesthetics
Includes bibliographical references and index. Contents Abe Jiro and The diary of Santaro / Stephen W. Kohl -- Kurata Hyakuzo and The origins of love and understanding / J. Thomas Rimer -- Taisho culture and the problem of gender ambivalence / Donald Roden -- Sociology and socialism in the interwar period / Nozomu Kawamura -- Tsuchida Kyoson and the sociology of the masses / Eugene Soviak -- Disciplinizing native knowledge and producing place : Yanagita Kunio, Origuchi Shinobu, Takata Yasuma / H.D. Harootunian -- Marxism addresses the modern : Nakano Shigeharu's reproduction of Taisho culture / Miriam Silverberg -- "Credo quia absurdum" : Tenko and the prisonhouse of language / Brett de Bary -- Ikkoku Shakai-shugi : Sano Manabu and the limits of Marxism as cultural criticism / Germaine A. Hoston. Nitobe Inazo : from world order to regional order / Thomas W. Burkman -- A vast and grave task : interwar Buddhist studies as an expression of Japan's envisioned global role / Jackie Stone -- A turning in Taisho : Asia and Europe in the early writings of Watsuji Tetsuro / William R. LaFleur -- Kuki Shuzo and The structure of Iki / Hajimu Nakano -- Natsume Soseki and the development of modern Japanese art / Shuji Takashina -- Yugen and Erhabene : Onishi Yoshinori's attempt to synthesize Japanese and Western aesthetics / Makoto Ueda.
Hiratsuka Raicho and early Japanese feminism / by Hiroko Tamida. Imprint Leiden ; Boston : Brill, 2004. ed. K.W. Radtke.
1. Women’s status in Edo and Meiji
2. Early Life and Formation of Radicalism
3. Shiobara Incident (1908) and Influence on her
4. Seitō Society and New Woman
5. Motherhood, controversy over
6. H.R. and Association of New Woman
7. H.R.’s Later Life
Essays on the modern Japanese church : Christianity in Meiji Japan / Yamaji Aizan ; translated by Graham Squires ; with introductory essays by Graham Squires and A. Hamish Ion. Imprint Ann Arbor, Mich : Center for Japanese Studies, University of Michigan, 1999.
First published 1906, Yamaji Aizan.
Christian opposition to Japanese militarism, fascism, state conformity.
See: Yasui Sokken; Yasui Sokken; “Kokumin no tomo” Christian mag (1887- )
Collection of essays on Japanese Christianity, state of the church.
Japanese poetic diaries / Selected and translated with an introd., by Earl Miner. Imprint Berkeley : University of California Press, 1969
The Tosa diary, by Ki no Tsurayuki.--The diary of Izumi Shikibu, attributed to Izumi Shikibu.--The narrow road through the provinces, by Matsuo Basho.--The verse record of my peonies (Botan Kuroku, diary of final days w/ T.B.) by Masaoka Shiki.--
Hiratsuka Raicho and early Japanese feminism / by Hiroko Tamida. Imprint Leiden ; Boston : Brill, 2004.
Pioneers of the women's movement in Japan : Hiratsuka Raicho and Fukuda Hideko seen through their journals, Seito and Sekai fujin / by Fumiko Horimoto. Imprint c1999. Ph.d. dissertation.
A short history of the women's movement in modern Japan / by Kazuko Tanaka. Imprint Tokyo : Femintern, 1977 .Cover design : "Originally woman was the sun" [by] Hiratsuka Raicho.
See new book: In the Beginning, Woman was the Sun: The Autobiography of a Japanese Feminist, Hiratsuka Raicho. Columbia Press.
The autobiography of Osugi Sakae / translated with annotations by Byron K. Marshall. Imprint Berkeley : University of California Press, c1992
Anarchist, 1885-1923. Jijōden. 1921-2. Prison Memoirs: Gokuchūki, 1919.
1: First memories: to 1894
2: Childhood 1894-5
3: A Young Hooligan: 1895-9
4: Cadet School 1899-1901
5: New Life 1901-2
6: Memoirs of Mother: 1902-4
7: Life in Prison: 1906-10
Osugi Sakae, anarchist in Taisho Japan : the creativity of the ego / Thomas A. Stanley. Imprint Cambridge, Mass. : Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University : Distributed by Harvard University Press, 1982.
2. Military Aspirations
3. Socialist Beginnings
5. Intellectual Foundations
6. Osugi and Police
7. Scandal and Eclipse(?)
8. Theories on Labor and Art
9. Russian Revolution and Anarchism
10. Ōsugi in Europe
11. Kantō earthquake and Ōsugi’s murder: “by a small group of military policeman,” done outside legal jurisdiction.
Shinto in history : ways of the kami / edited by John Breen and Mark Teeuwen. Imprint Richmond, Surrey : Curzon Press, c2000.
See Chapter 15: “Disfiguring of Naturalism: Hirata Atsutane and Orikuchi Shinobu”
Ueda Akinari, Hirata and Orikuchi disfigured?
Meeting the sensei : the role of the master in Shirakaba writers / by Maya Mortimer. Imprint Leiden ; Boston : Brill, 2000.
Shirakaba白樺派。(学習院、reaction to Naturalism; aristocratic; fascist tendencies)
1. Shirakaba Group
2. Mushanokōji Saneatsu
4. in search of self
5. the living masters
6. Shirakaba and Critics
7. The masters
8. 1908: Mushanokōji’s Kōya
9. 1916: Kurata Hyakuzō’s Shukke to sono deshi
10. 1919: M.S.’s Kōfuku mono
11. 1925: Nagayo Yoshirō
12. 1947: M.S.’s shinri sensei
The reform of fiction in Meiji Japan / Peter F. Kornicki. Imprint London : Published by Ithaca Press for the Board of the Faculty of Oriental Studies, Oxford University, 1982
Impart of 小説心髄 on 硯友社。1880s, Ken’yūsha group. Ozaki Kōyō’s Irozange.
A certain woman / Arishima Takeo ; translated, and with an introd. by Kenneth Strong. Imprint Tokyo : University of Tokyo Press ; Forest Grove, Or. : [distributed by] ISBS, c1978.
「或る女」characterized as nihonbanare, when it came out. Jōzetsu style. Revolt of modern woman against constraints of society (inf. Emma Bovery, Hedda Gabler, Anna Karennina). Rejection, criticism of Christianity. Urge toward self-realization (influence of Whitman). Impossibility of independence for woman? Self-destructive urge. Sexual urges and madness. Dissonance between nature and subjective emotions
read: Tolstoy’s “Resurection” “Confessions”
49 chapters. 1st part: Chapters 1-21: progressive, feminist, optimistic (mostly 1st ed.)
2nd part: Yōko’s fall.
Kibe (based on Kunikida Doppo)
Kimura (based on friend Mori)
Mr. And Mrs. Uchida: Christians
Sadako: Yoko’s girl
Asaya: Yoko’s mother
Kotō: (based on author)
Aiko and Sadayo: sisters
Oka: sensitive young man
Divided self : a biography of Arishima Takeo / Leith Morton. Imprint Sydney : Allen & Unwin, 1988
金閣寺 (1956)/ 三島由紀夫 著.
The temple of the golden pavilion. Translated by Ivan Morris. Introd. by Nancy
Wilson Ross. Drawings by Fumi Komatsu. Imprint Rutland, Vt., C.E. Tuttle, .also see: Susan Napier; Jerry Piven’s “Madness and Perversion of Yukio Mishima”
Mizoguchi: narrator recalling events. Zen acolyte, pyschopath obsessed with beauty.
Tsurukawa: pure-hearted friend. Commits suicide.
Kashiwagi: evil-genius friend.
Rōshi: ‘the Superior’
Ashikaga Yoshimitu: 15th century shōgun.
Father: Zen priest, dies early on. Expects son to one day become Master of temple.
Intro: in real life, the boy who burned the building did so out of a hatred for all things beautiful, which arose from his own self-loathing and sense of ugliness. Dostoevsky similarities (without the emotional identification with any specific character).
Ch1: childhood, fascination w/ temple; visit to temple with father, father’s death. Uiko and lover (Navy deserter), double suicide-murder.
Ch 2: foster boy at temple. First days. Friend Tsurukawa. Initial disappointment with Kinkakuji replaced by awe. Spies breast-feeding ceremony with Tsurukawa at Nanzan-ji.
Ch 3: war ends. Kinkakuji loses its meaning; separation between self and temple. Bad relationship with mother. GI’s arrive. Serves as guide. Tramples on Japanese prostitute’s stomach at GI’s command. Enters Ōtani University.
Ch 4: prostitute miscarries due to trampling, demands money. Rōshi knows the reason, Mizoguchi speculates. New school: enter Kashiwagi. Gives long, unnatural speech on first meeting. Concludes ‘there is no love.’ Tells story of his first sexual encounter. Together they ditch school. Think of war days, cleaning up dead bodies. Ruminates on man’s zangyaku nature, not only in war. Talks of history, nightmares. His girl approaches.
Ch 5: girl with dirty mouth and sadistic eyes. Afraid, Mizoguchi runs to temple to escape from what Kashiwagi has showed him. “yesterday was an act,” he later reveals. The two plan trip to Araashiyama. Kashiwagi brings a girl for Mizoguchi (plump, from the gejuku where he stays). She tells how she witnessed the breast-feeding ceremony. Talk on aesthetics, yūga, bi. “beautiful scenery is hell.” Left alone with girl. Image of kinkakuji intrudes, girl runs away. Telegraph comes: Tsurukawa died in accident. Mizoguchi’s loneliness begins. Awaits taiphoon at Kinkakuji; taiphoon never comes.
Ch 6: evil Kashiwagi teaches Mizoguchi the shakuhachi. Muses on music. In return, he steals flowers for Kashiwagi. They do ikebana together. Woman who gave breasts to soldier shows up. Kashiwagi mistreats her; she runs away. Mizoguchi follows. She offers breast, he sees kinkakuji, freaks out, runs away. (too many excrescences (due to serialization?); objective correlative problem; perverted Nietzchean Ubermensch dreams; artificial style of Mishima, whose main purpose is to exhibit how “crazy” he is)
Ch 7: bee and chrysanthemum talk. Runs into rōshi with geisha. Awaits new post at temple. Disgusted by hypocrisy of rōshi. Runs away to NW Japan. Long landscape scene. Arrives on Japan Sea coast. Decides to burn Kinkakuji.
Ch 8: stays at lodge. Talks about educational value of burning down temple. Nothing lasts. Kashiwagi tracks him down after return to Kyoto. Demands money he had lent him. Elder covers for him. Two chat, reaffirm friendship, talk about Tsurukaya’s death (suicide).
Ch 9: goes to Gobancho district to lose virginity before arson-suicide. Visits her a few times.
Ch 10: the day has come: July 1, 1950. Father Zenkai meeting. Father Zenkai seems through him, to an emptiness. Burns temple, flees into city, decides not to drink the arson.
Modern Japanese stories : an anthology / edited by Ivan Morris ; with translations by Edward Seidensticker ... [et al.] ; and woodcuts by Masakazu Kuwata. Imprint Rutland, Vt. ; Tokyo : C.E. Tuttle, 1962.
Under reconstruction / Mori Ogai -- Order of the White Paulownia / Tokuda Shusei -- Hydrangea / Nagai Kafu -- Seibei's gourds / Shiga Naoya -- Tattoo / Tanizaki Junichiro -- On the conduct of Lord Tadanao / Kikuchi Kan -- The camellia / Satomi Ton -- Brother and sister / Muro Saisei -- The house of a Spanish dog / Sato Haruo -- "Autumn Mountain" / Akutagawa Ryunosuke -- The handstand / Ogawa Mimei -- Letter found in a cement-barrel / Hayama Yoshiki -- The charcoal bus / Ibuse Masuji
Machine / Yokomitsu Riichi –
The moon on the water / Kawabata Yasunari -- Nightingale / Ito Einosuke -- Morning mist / Nagai Tatsuo -- The hateful age / Niwa Fumio -- Downtown / Hayashi Fumiko -- A man's life / Hirabayashi Taiko -- The idiot / Sakaguchi Ango -- Shotgun / Inoue Yasushi -- Tiger-Poet / Nakajima Ton -- The courtesy call / Dazai Osamu -- The priest and his love / Mishima Yukio.
Advertising tower : Japanese modernism and modernity in the 1920s / William Gardner. Imprint Cambridge, Mass. : Harvard University Asia Center : Distributed by Harvard University Press, 2006.
1 Media and Modernism 000
2 Language at the Limits: The Global Situation of
3 "All forms of poetic literature are destroyed":
Ky¿jir¿'s Shikei senkoku 000
4 Framing Modernity in Hayashi Fumiko's H¿r¿ki 000
5 H¿r¿ki and the "Modern Girl" 000
6 Anarchism and Imperialism: Hagiwara Ky¿jir¿'s
A Brief Biographical Sketches 000
B Hagiwara Ky¿jir¿: Selected Poems and Manifestoes
Be a woman : Hayashi Fumiko and modern Japanese women's literature / Joan E. Ericson. Imprint Honolulu : University of Hawai'i Press, 1997.
Part One: Literary History
1 Reading a Woman Writer
2 When was Women’s Lit?
3 Women’s Journals
4 Reading a Woman’s Diary
6 A Place in Literary History
Part Two: Fiction: Hayashi Fumiko 林芙美子 (1904-1951).
Includes translation of "Horoki" and "Suisen" by Fumiko Hayashi.
放浪記 diary of a vagabond.
Floating Clouds, Fumiko Hayashi (1903-1951). Translated by Lane Dunlop. Originally serialized between 1949-1951.
Background: Japan, with France, dually occupied French Indochina from 1940-5. Germany took Franch the same year, established Vichy regime. See “Bel Ami” by Mauppaussant; see Ikaho 伊香保 (geisha hot spring town in Gunma). See 長岡 in Niigata、鷺宮 (Saginomiya, Iba’s family).
67 chapters. [also see Naruse’s film version]
3rd person narrator, weaves in and out of the minds of different characters.
Koda Yukiko, heroine: goes to French Indochina in 1943 to work as typist in Imperial Japan’s transient “fantasy world.” Intrigued by French culture. War ends. returns from French Indochina to postwar Japan, Tsuruga.falls in love with Tomioka in Da-lat. Love ends when they reunite in postwar Japan. Double suicide attempt fails; aborts baby; he flees to Yakushima to work, she follows. Her illness grows worse. Desperately tries to recreate their life together in Indochina. Works the books for Sunshine cult; steals money. They reach Yakushima, she grows ill and dies in end.
Tomioka Kengo: womanizing minor official with Department of Agriculture and Forestry. Repatriation. Alcoholic. Plans double-suicide with Yukiko; meets Osei instead. Writes “discourse on lacquer” for money. Sleeps with adolescent runaway. Abondoned wife Kuniko dies (suicide). Continues his lifestyle after Yukiko’s death in Yakushima.
Osei: geisha from Ikaho, whom Tomioka meets while on double-suicide mission with Yukiko. Big, beautiful body. Lover of Tomioka. Strangled by husband.
Iba-san: cultist “Great Sunshine Religion”; first lover (relationship began with rape) in Saginomiyz house; sells house.
Kano: feud with Tomioka in Indochina over Yukiko. Nationalistic, honest type. Grows sick and dies after war. Catholic funeral.
Joe: temporary gaijin lover.
Kuniko: Tomioka’s wife, stolen from a friend.
Early modern Japanese literature : an anthology, 1600-1900 / edited with introductions and commentary by Haruo Shirane ; translators, James Brandon ... [et al.]. Imprint New York : Columbia University Press, c2002.
Chapter : Late Yomihon: History and Supernatural Revised (on Tanizaki Bakin)
Includes chapters 12, 13, 19, 25 of Nansō satomi hakkenden. Characteristics of Bakin: Kanzenchōaku emphasis; emphasis on karma; sympathy for marginal figures. Influenced by Suikoden, Chūshingura suikoden.
-- Santō Kyōden’s (1761-1816) --
“Grilled and Basted Edo-Born Playboy” (Edo Umare Uwaki no kabayaki, 1785)
Santō Kyōden (writer of kibyōshi and yomihon) and Kitao Masanobu (illustrator) (same historical self, real name: Iwase Sei): born commoner in Edo.
Intertextuality: Genji, Ise, Hanabusa Itchō, Emma, Confucius,
Enjirō: Mock hero, millionaire’s son, funny nose. Ridiculous quest to be a real uwakimono; hires people to make it look real. Fails.
Kitari Kinosuke: neighbor, hanger-on, fellow frequenter of the quarters.
Warui Shian: neighbor, fellow frequenter.
Ukina: Enjirō’s geisha
Two ruffians: steal clothes during shinjū “attempt.”
-Motoori Norinaga- (p. 611-630)
Ashiwake obune (“small boat punting through the reeds”) (1757): anti-didactic; argues for expression; reader-response orientated, natural expression no longer capable in our corrupted age; incorrectness, correctness irrelevant; judge poem on own merits, using standards different than those of Confucianism, Buddhism. Eliot-like comment: straight feeling is not a poem; distinguishes bathos from pathos; monoaware. Devote ourselves to ancients! Mimic the ancients!
Isonokami no sasamegoto (“my personal view of poetry”) (1763): advotes importance of empathy, need for reader response, which is only possible with “aya”; secondary benefits: political and social. Yamato spirit revival! Class sympathy advocated; subjective realism (a perfert mirror reflecting emotions).
Shibun yōryō (“essence of tale of genji”): argues that monogatari needs to be treated on its own terms, not in Confucian or Buddhist terms (moral, didactic). Monogatari and waka are both governed by mono no aware. “good” and “bad” in Genji—“good” characters know mono no aware, “bad” characters don’t. Hotaru chapter of Genji: defense of monogatari against moral interpretation. Mono no aware vs. Buddhist (Confucian) austerity, detachment. Using didactic standard for monogatari is like cutting down cherry tree for firewood.
Genji monogatari tama no ogushi (“Genji Monogatari, The Small-Jeweled Comb”) (1796). Revision of Shibunyōryō. Separate standards! Quotes “Fireflies” (Hotaru) chapter. Intentions of monogatari. The Good qualities are related to its function (arrow, armor analogy). “to have lotus flowers you must have the mud,” but to dwell on the mud would be inelegant (Murasaki doesn’t).
Naobi no mitama (“Spirit of the Gods”) 1771. intro to Kojikiden, Motoori’s lifework. Divine rulers of Japan legitimate; secular rulers of china, elsewhere are not.
Uiyamabumi (“First steps in Mountains”) (1798): guidelines for studying classics, for students. Promotes fusion between the Two Ways (Literary studies; the Way). Literary knowledge necessary for knowing the Way.
A captive of love : a romance from the original Japanese of Kyokutei Bakin / by Edward Greey. Imprint London : Gowans & Gray, 1912.
Chapters 1-17 or nansō satomi hakkenden.
Takizawa Bakin / by Leon M. Zolbrod. Imprint New York : Twayne Publishers, 
Excellent source. Bakin’s birth and life in Edo; works; political, social, historical context.
Stylistic contrast: kana-majiri-bun, gazokubun; colloquial mix.
Chapter 6 on “nansōhakkenden.
First publication: 1814. finished in 1842. 106 volumes, 9 parts. At the time, it was the longest story ever in Chinese and Japanese tradition.
The dark room / Junnosuke Yoshiyuki ; translated by John Bester. Imprint Tokyo : Kodansha International New York : distributed by Harper & Row, 1975. 「暗室」1970。
Won Tanizaki prize. Present, 1968. 49 chapters. Last chapter: autumn, health fading, vagina-flower dream-vision, enters Natsue’s apartment. Novelist’s-journal-genre. Themes: lesbianism; genre of the sexual confession; depressive, hakujō sex-maniac protagonist-egoist (ch 37); theory of evil-pussy; memories of bombing of May 25, 1945 in Miyamasuzaka and dead fish in fish bowl; ideal of the nameless lover; “The Story of O” by Anne Desclos, pen name Pauline Reage; whores are not anomalies; rather, they are exaggerations of the typical.
“I” narrator: novelist. wife’s dead. Abortion. Desires brainless women. Now 43. Nakata Shuichi.
Toru Tsunoki: old friend. Calls after 10 years. Now 43. once a promising author. Fucked Nakata’s wife.
Keiko: dead wife. Killed by car.
Maki and Tae: girls at bar. Takes Maki to inn. Lesbian. Doesn’t mind Nakata, though. Fucks her on second meeting. Nakata explores Maki’s lesbianism. Impregnates her, she leaves for NY.
Uchiyama Torao and wife Yuriko: doctor of physics. Sibling’s all retarded.
(Mariya) Takako: Ikebana teacher. 4 yr. relationship with Nakata. 29. gets married.
Natsue: sweaty body. Enjoys abortions. Nearly beaten to death; whipped and branded by Nakata. Last remaining girl. Last scene: he’s entering her dark apartment. Continues to see other men. Learns surname, immediately forgets it: Yashiro. Description of her meiki: chapter 46.
Chinpira uncle in San’in:
Alos see: tsubushi-abortion; Hitchcock movie about unhappy wife; Gauguin painting “Whence Comes We”; Oxford Book of Japanese Short Stories and Seven Strories of Modern Japan (three policemen); Discourse of Ambivalence in Yoshiyuki Junnosuke, Ph.d diss., Eiji Sekine; Yoshiyuki’s Henry Miller translations; see Foucault’s “the History of Sexuality”.
Other novels: Yoshiyuki novels “Honoo no naka” (1956) “Shuu” (1954) “Suna no ue no shokubutsu mure” (1963) “Medama” (novel at time of death)
「夕暮れまで」 Imprint  原作者: 吉行淳之介
made into 1980 film byKuroki Kazuo. Took 13 years to complete. New word became fashionable after novel yūgure-zoku.
7 chapters: 1. 公園で ２． 3．傷 4．夜の警官 5．血 6．すでにそこにある黒 7．夕暮れまで。
3rd person narrator:
佐々: writer in 40s, married.
杉子：his virgin lover; has sumomo with; unintentionally has sex with him in end.
Young man: Sugiko’s young boyfriend
Mieko: Sasa’s other young lover
The cannery boat, and other Japanese short stories Imprint New York : AMS Press, 
The cannery boat, by Takiji Kobayashi.--The man who did not applaud, by Seikichi Fujimori.--The fifteenth of March, 1928, by Takiji Kobayashi.--The factory in the sea, by Denji Kuroshima.--For the sake of the citizens, by Takiji Kobayashi.--The monument, by Sanji Kishi.--Linesmen, by Teppei Kataoka.--The misleader goes abroad, by Sanji Kishi.--The efficiency committee, by Naoshi Tokunaga.--Lieutenant Kusama, by Seikichi Fujimori.--Cocoons, by Fusao Hayashi.--Takiji Kobayashi murdered by police.
Famous Chinese short stories / retold by Lin Yutang. Imprint Westport, Conn. : Greenwood Press, 1979, c1952
See other works by Lin, Yutang, 1895-1976
The similitude of blossoms : a critical biography of Izumi Kyoka (1873-1939), Japanese novelist and playwright / Charles Shiro Inouye. Imprint Cambridge, Mass. : Harvard University Asia Center : Distributed by Harvard University Press, 1998.
The saint of Mt. Koya ; The song of the troubadour / Kyoka Izumi ; translated by Stephen W. Kohl. Imprint Kanazawa, Japan : Committee Office, Committee of the Translation of the Works of Izumi Kyoka, 1990. also see intangible.org for translation.
歌行燈 / 泉鏡花 著 ウタ アンドン uta andon 高野聖 / 泉鏡花 著 コウヤヒジリ koyahijiri Imprint 東京 : 新潮社, 2003.9 トウキョウ : シンチョウシャ tokyo : shinchosha.
1st person narrator: shares train ride w/ priest. Returning to Wakasa, decides to travel with priest. They stay together the night at Katoriya inn. 26 section frame story.
Itinerant priest (2nd narrator): traveling from Nagoya to Tsuruya. On way to Zen monastery Eiheiji, to visit old friend. Belongs to monastery on Mt. Koya. mid-40s. reader discovers in chapter 2 he is Shucho, renowned priest from Rikuminji. Decides to test self after being accused of clinging to live, instinct of self-preservation—takes dangerous route to find lost peddler. Battles with desire, attachment, instinct to preserve the self; disrobed, bathed by woman, but resists.
Woman: healer, from city, now in woods. Beautiful enchantress. Turns men to animals after copulation. Stuck in woods after the flood which occurred while visiting idiot-boy patient.
Old uncle: stuck with jiro, woman in woods after flood killed everyone.
Jiro: idiot-boy husband.
1: narrator and kōya priest meet up, share train
2: arrive at Katoriya inn
3: priests starts telling story to narrator before bed. Tells about medicine peddler he met many years ago.
4-5: story continues: fork in road, asks peasant for directions. peddler takes narrow (wrong) path; accused of being attached to life; despite being annoyed by peddler, takes narrow path to rescue him
6: notorious Amo pass; encounters snakes.
7: falls, twists knee. More snakes. Enters forest.
9: vision of Armageddon with leeches. Rids self of leeches. Continues on.
10: encounters weird man-creature and beautiful woman
11: woman offers lodging; asks priest not to mention the capital
12: old uncle appears.
13: priest and woman go to river far from house
14: her breast falls out; offers to wash him; strips him naked
15: priest starts to enjoy bath; interrupts story- “don’t get too excited!”
16: animals leap onto her naked body
17: return to house
18: horse won’t leave; she arouses it (sexually?)
19: explains who he met today. Woman nude w/ hourse in ecstacy. Seduces horse to get it to leave.
20: they sup; feeds idiot boy pickled radish
21: encourages idiot boy to sing
23: back to narrator 1’s frame. Tsuruga Inn. Animals of all sorts in house in a frenzy: “we have a guest tonight,” she tells the animals. Sounds suddenly stop after priest chants sutras (beastiality?!)
24: next day, the priest considers giving up austere life and living with woman. Explains how she entreated him the previous night: “stay here with me!”
25: at man-woman falls, decides to go back to woman’s house; runs into uncle; peddler was the horse, which was traded for carp to eat. After sex, she turns all the men into animals.
26: turns out woman was a daughter of the quack doctor mentioned by peasant. Daughter thought to be a healer with insatiable lust (heals by rubbing breasts against men); all the animals were former lover bewitched; while visiting boy, there was a flood; everyone died; only the 3 survived in the woods.
Japanese gothic tales / Izumi Kyoka ; translated by Charles Shiro Inouye. Imprint Honolulu : University of Hawai i Press, 1996
The surgery room -- The holy man of Mount Koya -- One day in spring -- Osen and Sokichi.
Spirits of another sort : the plays of Izumi Kyoka / M. Cody Poulton Imprint Ann Arbor, Mich. : Center for Japanese Studies, the University of Michigan, 2001.
Include translations and commentaries of three plays: Kaijin besso, Tenshu monogatari, and Yashagaike.
Meiji melodrama : Kyoka and the shinpa theater -- A goblin's pedigree : Kyoka and the fantastic -- The geography of imagination : staging fantasy in turn-of-the-century European and Japanese drama -- Demond pond : a twice-told tale -- The sea god's villa : marriage to the sea -- The castle tower : man, woman, and art.
Before the nation : Kokugaku and the imagining of community in early modern Japan / Susan L. Burns. Imprint Durham [N.C.] : Duke University Press, 2003.
Late Tokugawa society and the crisis of community -- Before the Kojikiden: the divine age narrative in Tokugawa Japan -- Motoori Norinaga: discovering Japan -- Ueda Akinari: history and community -- Fujitani Mitsue: the poetics of community -- Tachibana Moribe: cosmology and community -- National literature, intellectual history, and the new Kokugaku -- Imagined Japan(s).
Things seen and unseen : discourse and ideology in Tokugawa nativism / H.D. Harootunian. Imprint Chicago : University of Chicago Press, 1988
Neither past nor present : the pursuit of classical antiquity in early modern and modern Japan / by Yasuko Sato. Imprint 2002. Ph.d dissertation
Remembering paradise : nativism and nostalgia in eighteenth-century Japan / Peter Nosco. Imprint Cambridge, Mass. : Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University : Distributed by Harvard University Press, 1990.
Jinsai, Sorai, Norinaga : three classical philologists of mid-Tokugawa Japan / Yoshikawa kojiro. Imprint Tokyo, Japan : Toho Gakkai, c1983
Ito, Jinsai, 1627-1705
Motoori, Norinaga, 1730-1801
Ogyu, Sorai, 1666-1728
Motoori Noringaga's criticism of the Genji monogatari : a study of the background and critical content of his Genji monogatari tama no ogushi / by Thomas James Harper.
Literature of the lost home : Kobayashi Hideo--literary criticism, 1924-1939 / edited and translated and with an introduction by Paul Anderer. Imprint Stanford, Calif. : Stanford University Press, c1995
Translation of selected works from: Kobayashi Hideo zenshu (15 vols., Shinchosha, 1979). Bibliog. Includes bibliographical references (p. 169-173) and index.
Part I. Complete works
- samazama naru ishō (1929)
- gendai bungaku no fuan (1932)
- kokyō o ushinatta bungaku (1933)
- bungakkai no konran (1934)
- watakushi shōsetsu ron (1935)
Part II. Excerpts
- Sakka no kao (1936)
- Shisō to jisseikatsu (1936)
Tradition and modernization in Japanese culture, edited by Donald H. Shively. Contributors: Carmen Blacker ... [et al.]. Imprint Princeton, N.J. : Princeton University Press, c1971.
See Seidensticker’s essay “Kobayashi Hideo”
Lodge, David, 1935- Title 20th century literary criticism : a reader Imprint [London] : Longman, 
Also see: Barthes’ “Criticism as Language”
Milton? Abrams “Mirror and the Lamp: Romantic Theory and the Critical Tradition”
George Steiner: on F.R. Leavis
Kermode, Frank, 1919-
A reader's guide to the twentieth-century novel / editor, Peter Parker ; consultant editor, Frank Kermode. Imprint New York : Oxford University Press, 1995. other stuff, too.
Sontag, Susan, 1933-
Against interpretation : and other essays / Susan Sontag Imprint New York : Delta, 1981, c1961
Steiner, George, 1929-
After Babel : aspects of language and translation / George Steiner. Imprint Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1998.
Representing the other in modern Japanese literature : a critical approach / edited by Rachael Hutchinson and Mark Williams. Imprint London ; New York : Routledge, 2007.
Japanese Hermeneutics : current debates on aesthetics and interpretation / edited by Michael F. Marra. Imprint Honolulu : University of Hawaii Press, c2002.
Method, hermeneutics, truth / Gianni Vattimo -- Poetics of intransitivity / Sasaki Kenichi -- The hermeneutic approach to Japanese modernity : "art-way," "iki," and "cut-continuance" / Ohashi Ryosuke -- Frame and link : a philosophy of Japanese composition / Amagasaki Akira -- The eloquent stillness of stone : rock in the dry landscape garden / Graham Parkes -- Motoori Norinaga's hermeneutic of mono no aware : the link between ideal and tradition / Mark Meli -- Between individual and communal, subject and object, self and other : mediating Watsuji Tetsuro's hermeneutics / John C. Maraldo -- Nishi Amane on aesthetics : a Japanese version of utilitarian aesthetics / Hamashita Masahiro -- Hegel in Tokyo : Ernest Fenollosa and his 1882 lecture on the truth of art / J. Thomas Rimer -- Ogai, Schelling, and aesthetics / Kambayashi Tsunemichi -- Cognitive gaps in the recognition of masters and masterpieces in the formative years of Japanese art history, 1880-1900 : historiography in conflict / Inaga Shigemi -- Nature, the naturalization of experience as national / Stefan Tanaka -- Coincidentia oppositorum : Onishi Yoshinori's Greek genealogies of Japan / Michael F. Marra -- Representations of "Janeseness" in modern Japanese aesthetics: an introduction to the critique of comparative reason / Otabe Tanehisa -- Constructing "Japanese literature" : global and ethnic nationalism / Haruo Shirane -- What is Bungaku? The reformulation of the concept of literature in early twentieth-century Japan / Suzuki Sadami -- Primitive vision : Heidegger's hermeneutics and Man'yoshu / Thomas LaMarre -- Saito Mokichi's poetics of Shasei / Haga Toru.
Origins of modern Japanese literature / Karatani Kojin ; translation edited by Brett de Bary. Imprint Durham, N.C. : Duke University Press, c1993
Principles of classical Japanese literature / Sumie Jones ... [et al.] ; edited, with an introduction by Earl Miner. Imprint Princeton, N.J. : Princeton University Press, c1985
Intro: Ideologoical Implications
A history of Japanese literature / by Jinichi Konishi ; translated by Aileen Gatten and Nicholas Teele ; edited by Earl Miner. Imprint Princeton, N.J. : Princeton University Press, c1984-
v. 1. The archaic and ancient ages -- v. 2. The early Middle Ages -- v. 3. The high Middle Ages
The artistry of Aeschylus and Zeami : a comparative study of Greek tragedy and no / Mae J. Smethurst. Imprint Princeton, N.J. : Princeton University Press, c1989
Kon Ichikawa : a guide to references and resources / John Allyn. Imprint Boston, Mass. : G.K. Hall, c1985.
Writing home : representations of the native place in modern Japanese literature / Stephen Dodd. Imprint Cambridge, Mass. : Harvard University Asia Center : Distributed by Harvard University Press, 2004. Kunikida Doppo : another place called home -- Shimazaki Toson : a distant perspective -- Shimazaki Toson : the limits of engagement -- Sato Haruo : the fantasy of home -- Shiga Naoya : grounds for authenticity -- Shiga Naoya : a dark night's making.
Currents in Japanese culture : translations and transformations / Amy Vladeck Heinrich, editor. Imprint New York : Columbia University Press, c1997
Postmodern, feminist and postcolonial currents in contemporary Japanese culture : a reading of Murakami Haruki, Yoshimoto Banana, Yoshimoto Takaaki and Karatani Kojin / Murakami Fuminobu. Imprint New York, N.Y. : Routledge, 2005.
Contemporary Japanese thought / edited by Richard F. Calichman. Imprint New York : Columbia University Press, c2005.
The politics of teasing; A feminist view of Maruyama Masao's modernity / Ehara Yumiko -- The imaginary geography of a nation and denationalized narrative; The discovery of the "Orient" and Orientalism / Kang Sangjung -- Overcoming modernity; Soseki's diversity : on Kokoro / Karatani Kojin -- The wonderland of "immortality" / Nishitani Osamu -- Two negations : the fear of being excluded and the logic of self-esteem / Naoki Sakai -- Japanese neo-nationalism : a critique of Kato Norihiro's "After the defeat" discourse; From the Hinomaru and Kimagayo to the symbolic emperor system / Takahashi Tetsuya -- In the feminine guise : a trap of reverse Orientanlism; Collapse of "Japanese mothers" / Ueno Chizuko -- Colonialism and modernity; Reflections beyond the flag : Why is the Hinomaru flag "auspicious/foolish"? / Ukai Satoshi.
Architecture as metaphor : language, number, money / Kojin Karatani ; translated by Sabu Kohso ; edited by Michael Speaks. Imprint Cambridge, Mass. : MIT Press, c1995.
Japanese art after 1945 : scream against the sky / Alexandra Munroe. Imprint New York : H.N. Abrams, 1994
Scream against the sky / Alexandra Munroe -- As witness to postwar Japanese art / Isozaki Arata -- Japan as museum : Okakura Tenshin and Ernest Fenollosa / Karatani Kojin -- Artistic subjectivity in the Taisho and early Showa avant-garde / John Clark -- Japanese thematics in postwar American art : from soi-disant Zen to the assertion of Asian-American identity / Bert Winther -- Some issues of circumstance : focusing on the 1990s / Amano Taro -- To catch up or not to catch up with the West : Hijikata and Hi Red Center / Nam June Paik -- To challenge the mid-summer sun : the Gutai group / Alexandra Munroe -- Circle : modernism and tradition / Alexandra Munroe -- Morphology of revenge : the Yomiuri Independent artists and social protest tendencies in the 1960s / Alexandra Munroe -- Revolt of the flesh : Ankoku Butoh and obsessional art ; A box of simile : Tokyo Fluxus, conceptual art, and the school of metaphysics ; The laws of situation : Mono-ha and beyond the sculptural paradigm / Alexandra Munroe -- X : experimental film and video / Barbara London -- Infinity nets : aspects of contemporary Japanese painting / Reiko Tomii -- Hinomaru illumination : Japanese art of the 1990s / Alexandra Munroe -- Readings in Japanese art after 1945 / compiled by Nakajima Masatoshi and Reiko Tomii.
Palm-of-the-hand stories / by Yasunari Kawabata ; translated from the Japanese by Lane Dunlop and J. Martin Holman. Imprint Rutland, Vt. : Charles E. Tuttle Co., 1988. Tenohira no shōsetsu.
70 stories (1923-72). “distillations of a larger world.” Kawabata’s “basic unit of comoposition” exemplified in this work.
Warawanu Otoko (1929):
Geisha in rivalry / translated by Kurt Meissner with the collaboration of Ralph Friedrich. Illus. by Shin Misho. Imprint Rutland, Vt. : C. E.Tuttle Co., . Udekurabe (1918). 22 chapters.
The main geisha:
Rikiji: imperious, spiteful. Owns Minatoya. Independent geish.
Kikuchiyo: gaudy. Starts own place Kikuobana with Yoshioka’s sponsorship.
Komayo: heroine, naïve. Used to be Komako. Started apprenticeship at 14.
Jukichi: old geisha, runs Obanaya in Shinbashi, where they all work. Married to old man Gozan. Her mother was also in the business.
Yoshioka: old customoer of Komayo. Married with kids. Leaves Rikiji to start seeing Komayo again, she leaves him for actor. Also secretly seeing servant girl who has own place “Murasaki.” Lived abroad, returned, now successful businessman.
Murasaki mistress: fat, slutty.
Eda-san: fat, jolly drinking friend of Yoshioka.
Hanasuke: geisha, dark, ugly, hard-worker.
Taki: maid from machiai. Gives Komayo place to stay upon her return from Akita after husband’s death.
Osada: hakoya of geisha house, 45, former hooker.
Hanako: child geisha.
Ichikawa Raishichi: Gozan’s second son. Debauch.
Gozan: old cranky man, master of Obanaya house. Married to Jukichi. Kitani Chojiro his entertainer’s name (rakugo). From fallen samurai family.
Kurayama Nanso: out-of-place-in-modern-world-sensei from Negishi: newspaper novelist, 40. theater critic, curmudgeon. His father Shusai.
Ochiyo: Nanso’s wife: 35. 13-year old daughter. From artsy family.
Sho-san: died young.
Shohachi: son of Chojiro (Gozan), becomes entertainer, dies suddenly.
Takijiro: prodigal son of Gozan, wanted to become writer, sukebe.
Kikujo: Segawa’s foster father.
Segawa Isshi: actor, plays female roles. “Hamamuraya”
Sugishima: Diet member. One of Komayo’s pursuers.
Yokohama antique dealer: looks like sea monster, pursues Komayo.
Yamai Kaname: new artist (Naturalist-esque). No nom de plum. Sukebe-fraud, uneducated (based on Tayama Katai?)
Kimiryu: actor Segawa’s new lover.
Traditional Japanese literature : an anthology, beginnings to 1600 / edited with introductions and commentary by Haruo Shirane ; translators, Sonja Arntzen ... [et al.]. Imprint New York : Columbia University Press, c2007.
Genji. 293-448. Murasaki Shikibu’s Genji and Nikki.
1-33 chapters: Genji’s birth, exile, triumphant return; hisvarious women (Tamakazura sequence 22-30).
34-41: Wakana-Maboroshi. Darkness gathers over Genji’s private life; Murasaki grows sick, dies; Genji dies.
42-54: shifts from capital to countryside. From courtly (of early chapters) to asceticism of later chapters.
Theme of decline, fallen status
Can be read as whole, or as an independent part
Not written in order from 1-54; serially, collected later.
Included here: Paulownia Court; The Broom Tree; Lavender; An Autumn Excursion; Heartvine; The Sacred Tree; Suma; Akashi; Fireflies; New Herbs: Part I; New Herbs: Part II; The Oak Tree; The Rites; The Lady at the Bridge; Beneath the Oak; Trefoil Knots; A Boat Upon the Waters; At Writing Practice.
Murasaki Shikibu Nikki (1010)
On rival Sei Shōnagon.
A tale of flowering fortunes : annals of Japanese aristocratic life in the Heian period / translated, with an introd. and notes, by William H. and Helen Craig McCullough. Imprint Stanford, Calif. : Stanford University Press, 1980. 2 volumes. Chronicle of Fujiwara family at peak of power during 10-11 centuries. Numerous female authors. First “history” in Japanese.
1st thirty chapters (events of period between 948 and 1028): life and times of Michinaga.
Chapter 31-40: Michinaga’s heirs (to 1092).
Only chapters translated in this book: Chapters 41-70: Seihen main section.
Zokuhen: “dry,” boring.
The old capital / by Yasunari Kawabata ; translated by J. Martin Holman. Imprint [Emeryville, Calif.] : Shoemaker & Hoard ; [Berkeley, Calif.] : Distributed by Publishers Group West, c2006.
Tales of the spring rain = Harusame monogatari / by Ueda Akinari ; translated and with an introd. by Barry Jackman. Imprint Tokyo : University of Tokyo Press, c1975.
Tales of the supernatural in early Modern Japan : kaidan, Akinari, Ugetsu monogatari / Noriko T. Reider. Imprint Lewiston, N.Y. : Edwin Mellen Press, c2002.
Tales of Moonlight and Rain, by Ueda Akinari. Translated by Anthony Chambers.
Nationalism and internationalism in imperial Japan : autonomy, Asian brotherhood, or world citizenship? / edited by Dick Stegewerns.
The dilemma of nationalism and internationalism in modern Japan : national interest, Asian brotherhood, international cooperation or world citizenship? / Dick Stegewerns -- Liberal nationalism in imperial Japan : the dilemma of nationalism and internationalism / Kevin M. Doak -- Constructing national identities : Asia, Japan and Europe in Fukuzawa Yukichi's theory of civilization / Annette Schad-seifert -- Tokutomi Soho and the problem of the nation-state in an imperialist world / Alistair Swale -- Nationalist actors in the internationalist theater : Nitobe Inazo and Ishii Kikujiro and the League of Nations / Thomas W. Burkman -- Yoshino Sakuzo : the isolated figurehead of the Taisho generation / Dick Stegewerns -- Royama Masamichi's perception of international order from the 1920s to 1930s and the concept of the East Asian community / Kobayashi Hiroharu -- Nationalism and internationalism in Japan's economic liberalism, : the case of Ishibashi Tanzan / Kurt W. Radtke -- The relation between national socialism and social democracy in the formation of the international policy of the Shakai Taishuto / Oikawa Eijiro -- A melancholic nationalism : Yokomitsu Riichi and the aesthetic of cultural mourning / Seiji M. Lippit.
Shanghai : a novel / by Yokomitsu Riichi ; translated with a postscript by Dennis Washburn. Imprint Ann Arbor : Center for Japanese Studies, University of Michigan, 2001.
Love and other stories of Yokomitsu Riichi / translated [from the Japanese] and with an introd. by Dennis Keene. Imprint [Tokyo] : University of Tokyo Press, 
Yokomitsu’s (1894-1947) anti-“I”novel aspirations, as third generation writers of modern Japanese writers. Calls shishōsetsu “enormous lies.” Anti-Shiga Naoya.
Japanese modernism of 20s (influence from Europe, Surrealism, etc.).
Europe had WWI, we had earthquake of ’23.
Biography: born in country town Ueno, Waseda in 1916, then again in ’18. father employed by gov’t on a series of contracts, often in Korea. Father a typical Meiji Fukuzawa type. Father dies in Korea, leaves family penniless.
October 1924 Bungei jidai modernist magazine appears. Works on bond with Kawabata.
Mass audience needs by late 20s. soon peters out.
Mother dies ’25; wife in ’26: no time for Bungei jidai takes new wife in ’27.
April ’28 goes to China, writes “failure” novel, Shanghai. “jumpy, impressionistic style,” about May 30th movement of 1925. marks beginning of farewell to Shinkankaku style.
“new popular novel” Shin’en (Garden of Sleep), 1930-1.
1935 article “Junsui shōsetsu”- in praise of popular novel. Shisōsetsu sucks.
’36: goes to Europe, Berlin Olympics, Paris. Life here sucks, he complains in articuls. Starts “fascist” novel Ryoshū.
Out of favor after war; published “Yoru no kutsu” on eastern “mu.” Little attention paid.
Sickness, home remedies, death words: want to ride in an aeroplane. Kawabata speech.
3rd person narrator: sentimental moments
He: rejeced pedophile? Reduced to clown by baby niece, decides to marry crippled niece. Son. First in country, now in Tokyo. Back and forth. Worried that newborn niece might die. Jealous of attention baby gets. Goes back to Tokyo. He writes letter to friend on love and “payoff”; on being loved.
Mother: goes to Kyushu.
Father: in Kyushu.
Older sister: pregnant. Baby born in May: “yuki.” Has weirdly large navel. Not worried about it.
Small boy walking down street: tells “he” of dead baby, killed by mom’s breast.
Yukiko: badly develops erysipelas as reaction to vaccine, arm amputated. Actually, sister’s words misconstrued due to bad writing. 1-year old Yuki afraid of uncle.
The child who was laughed at 「笑われた子」–
On a farm.
3rd person narrator:
Kichi: slow kid. Laughed at in dream, by teacher, family. Makes mask in secret, which looks down, mocks everyone. Years later, father: admires mask, has Kiichi become a clog maker. Breaks mask in anger: “you made me a clog maker!” 2 broken pieces make fine pair of clogs, he thinks, indicated he’s resigned to clog maker fate.
The defeated husband 「負けた夫」–
After picking up a blue stone 「青い石を拾ってから」–
The pale captain 「青い大尉」–
The depths of the town 「町の底」–
Spring riding in a carriage 「春は馬車に乗って」1926 –
Beach house (Kamakura?)
She: dying of T.B.
He: tends to her. A bunch of sweet pea flowers arrive from unknown sender; first sign of spring near (still cold wind blows from sea)
Ideas of a flower garden 「花園の思想」:
1927, marks end of Shinkankaku period.
3rd person narrator.
He: tends her. After her death, he, a scrap of paper, blows down into garden.
She: about to die in sanatorium. Wants to die. Finally dies
Surrealist views of moon in part 4.
part 5: in the flower garden; love here vs. love in the town; hot nurses everywhere; one caught with sick lover at night, dismissed
part 6: politics of the village; economics of the fish market; 2 groups: heart vs. lungs; fishers dump rotting dead fish near garden, fevers flare.
Part 7: death notice from doctor; active transformation of reality through will and imaginiation (involution? Talking about fiction itself?)
Part 8: get rid of the lilies! Too strong!
Part 9: asks young man to stop burning straw: you’re killing my wife!
Part 10: sentimental chat; prays to god to save her.
Part 11: mother arrives
Part 12: injections; he holds her; situation hopeless
13: agony starts; death over fall “like a vivid dawn”; dies nobly
The machine 「機械」1930, marks new style–
Joyce, Proust influences; fragmented outer reality.
I: prepares poisons at factory, making red nameplates. Has fight with Karube. Gets beat up calmly. Suspects Yashiki of trying to steal secret about new concoction. Other than that, likes Yashiki, and they consider collaborating together. Finally 3-way brawl: Yashiki, Karube, I.
The boss: 40, like a holy man, blows money like a child. Blows wages. Along with others, a bit looney from making 50,000 iron chloride brass plates. Inhaling fumes, etc. the 2 become suspicious of I.
Karube: jealous prone; silent-movie obsessed; suspects I of being spy. After fights, the 3 go drinking. Next morning, Yashiki is dead, mistakenly? Poisoned self with ammonium? Karube suspect I; I suspects Karube.
Boss’s wife: short-sighted string-puller
Woman: 40, met on way from Kyushu
The “machine”: the machine that controls fate propels our actions, makes us violent, suspicious.
The carriage 「馬車」-
Yokomitsu Riichi and the Shinkankakuha / by Dennis Keene.
Chikamatsu : 5 late plays / translated and annotated by C. Andrew Gerstle. Imprint New York : Columbia University Press, c2001.
Twins at the Sumida River (Futago sumidagawa) ; Lovers pond in Settsu Province (Tsu no Kuni meoto ike) ; Battles at Kawa-nakajima (Shinshu Kawa-nakajima kassen) ; Love suicides on the Eve of the Koshin Festival (Shinju yoigoshin) ; Tethered steed and the eight provinces of Kanto (Kanhasshu tsunagi-uma).
18th century Japan : culture and society / edited by C. Andrew Gerstle. Imprint Sydney, Australia : Allen & Unwin, c1989.
Part I Pleasure Quarters and Theatre 1
1. The pleasure quarters and Tokugawa culture Teruoka Yasutaka 3
2. Flowers of Edo: Kabuki and its patrons C. Andrew Gerstle 33
3. Edo Jōruri Torigoe Bunzō 51
Part II Edo Language 61
4. The development of Edo language H. B. D. Clarke 63
5. Edo and Tokyo dialects Hiroko C. Quackenbush 73
Part III High Culture 85
6. Group portrait with artist: Yosa Buson and his patronsMark Morris 87
7. The Tale of Genji in the eighteenth century: Keichū, Mabuchi,Norinaga Thomas J. Harper 106
8. The role of traditional aesthetics Nakano Mitsutoshi 124
9. Matsudaira Sadanobu and Samurai Education Robert L.Backus
Major plays of Chikamatsu / translated by Donald Keene. Imprint New York : Columbia University Press, c1990
Circles of fantasy : convention in the plays of Chikamatsu / C. Andres Gerstle. Imprint Cambridge, Mass. : Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University Cambridge, Mass. : Distributed by Harvard University Press, 1986
Circles of fantasy : convention in the plays of Chikamatsu / C. Andres Gerstle. Imprint Cambridge, Mass. : Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University Cambridge, Mass. : Distributed by Harvard University Press, 1986
Includes Preface to The 1687 Gidayū Collection of Jōruri Scenes by Takemoto Gidayū.
Anthology of Japanese literature, from the earliest era to the mid-nineteenth century / compiled and edited by Donald Keene. Imprint New York : Grove Press, c1955.
See “Chikamatsu and the Art of the Puppet Stage.”
Japanese aesthetics and culture : a reader / edited by Nancy G. Hume. Imprint Albany, N.Y. : State University of New York Press, c1995.
Japanese literature : four polarities / J. Thomas Rimer -- Japanese aesthetics / Donald Keene -- The vocabulary of Japanese aesthetics, I, II, III / Wm. Theodore De Bary -- Ways of Japanese thinking / Graham Parkes -- Feminine sensibility in the Heian era / Donald Keene -- "Approach to Haiku" and "Basic principles" / Kenneth Yasuda -- Basho on the art of the Haiku : impersonality in poetry / Makoto Ueda -- Zeami and the art of the no drama : imitation, yugen, and sublimity / Makoto Ueda -- The social environment of Tokugawa Kabuki / Donald H. Shively -- The wabi aesthetic through the ages / Haga Koshiro -- Bushido : mode or ethic? / Roger T. Ames -- Culture in the present age / H. Paul Varley.
Zeami's talks on Sarugaku : an annotated translation of the Sarugaku dangi : with an introduction on Zeami Motokiyo / by Erika de Poorter. Imprint Amsterdam : J.C. Gieben, 1986
On the art of no drama : the major treatises of Zeami / translated by J. Thomas Rimer, Yamazaki Masakazu. Imprint Princeton, N.J. : Princeton University Press, c1984
Twenty plays of the No theatre / edited by Donald Keene, with the assistance of Royall Tyler ; illustrated with drawings by Fukami Tanro and from the Hosho texts. Imprint New York : Columbia University Press, 1970.
The Conventions of the No drama, by D. Keene.--Works by Kanami: Matsukaze.--The sought-for grave (Motomezuka). Komachi and the hundred nights (Kayoi Komachi).--Works by Zeami: Komachi at Sekidera (Sekidera Komachi). The brocade tree (Nishikigi). Semimaru. The deserted crone (Obasute). Lady Han (Hanjo). The reed cutter (Ashikari).--Works of unknown authorship: Shokun. The shrine in the fields (Nonomiya). The iron crown (Kanawa).--Work by Zenchiku: Yokihi.--Works by Nobumitsu: The priest and the willow (Yugyo yanagi). Dojoji.--A program of five plays: The queen mother of the West (Seiobo). Kanehira. The imperial visit to Ohara (Ohara goko).--The bird-scaring boat (Torioi-bune). The valley rite (Taniko)
The confessions of Lady Nijo / Translated from Japanese by Karen Brazell. Imprint Stanford, Calif. : Stanford University Press, 1973. Author: Nakanoin Masatada no Musume, b. 1258
On the art of no drama : the major treatises of Zeami / translated by J. Thomas Rimer, Yamazaki Masakazu. Imprint Princeton, N.J. : Princeton University Press, c1984
And then : Natsume Soseki's novel Sorekara / translated from the Japanese with an afterword and selected bibliography by Norma Moore Field. 1978.
Nagai Kafū (1867-1916)
Trilogy (emergence of the mature novelist; 3 novels, 3 stages: youth, adulthood, middle-age)
Sanshirō (1908): “sweet story of youth Ogawa Sanshirō, Tōdai student from country. Love for Mineko (“new woman”); stray sheep, spectator.
Sorekara (1909): neurotic, physically fit Daisuke; pedantic;
Mon (1910): “quiet tale about Sōsuke and his wife Oyone” in “house beneath a cliff” (274).
Meian (1916, uncompleted at time of death)
Sorekara: 17 chapters, Afterword by translator.
Daisuke’s father: wealthy industrialist.
Afterword: brief bio.
The 210th day / Soseki Natsume ; translated by Sammy I. Tsunematsu ; with an introduction by Marvin Marcus. Imprint Boston : Tuttle, 2002.
Nihyaku tōka, 1915.
Based on Sōseki’s experiences in Kumamoto. “an intruiging literary experiment” (Dr. Marvin Marcus)
Roku: easy-going: the two climb Mt. Aso as it’s about to erupt. Storms on 210th day. Almost entirely dialogue.
Ten nights of dream, Hearing things, The heredity of taste / Translated [from the Japanese] by Aiko Ito and Graeme Wilson. Imprint Rutland, Vt. : Tuttle, 
Yume jūya (1907-8)
Shumi no iden (1906)
Koto no sorane (1905)
The three-cornered world / Translated by Alan Turney. Imprint Tokyo : C.E. Tuttle, 1968
Soseki’s opposition to Realist, Naturalist and Romantic schools
Artist above vulgar, transcend vulgar; the vulgar is unworthy of artist’s attention (Intro)
Artist: wants to paint O-nami, but there’s something lacking in expression.
Hostess at hotel: O-nami. Strange, mad, rumors abound (left her husband for a priest)
Grass on the wayside : (Michikusa); a novel / Translated from the Japanese; and with an introd. by Edwin McClellan. Imprint Chicago : University of Chicago Press, 
Sōseki’s only autobiographical novel. First such autobiography (perhaps most distinguished of all I-novels).
102 sections (serialized in Asahi shinbun).
Kenzō: experiences based on Soseki’s own, from 1903 (return from London) up to point of becoming a writer.
Wife: strained relation with Kenzo.
Light and darkness : an unfinished novel / by Soseki Natsume ; translated from the Japanese, with a critical essay by V.H. Viglielmo. Imprint Tokyo : Tuttle, 1972
Afterword by translator.
Second trilogy: Higan sugi made (19120 “After the Equinox”; Kōjin (1913) “Wayfarer”; Kokoro (1914).
Last two: Michikusa (1915); Meian (1916)
Action: 10 days
Tsuda Yoshi: a company official; has operation first on body (then on soul); goes to hot spring to recover—this is the entire plot (Afterwod 381-2).
5 other characters:
O-hide: younger sister
Mrs. Yoshikawa: wife of shachō, grand dame
Kobayashi: “friend from school days”
Kiyoko: former sweetheart
Approaches to the modern Japanese novel / edited by Kinya Tsuruta & Thomas E. Swann. Imprint Tokyo : Sophia University, 1976.
Approaches to the modern Japanese short story / edited by Thomas E. Swann and Kinya Tsuruta. Imprint Tokyo : Waseda University Press, c1982.
Return to Japan : from "pilgrimage" to the West / edited by Yoichi Nagashima. Imprint Aarhus ; Oakville, Conn. : Aarhus University Press, c2001.
"This collection of papers is the fruitful result of a conference held in Copenagen, September 5-6, 1998 ..."--P. 5. Bibliog. Includes bibliographical references and index.
Includes essay by Kinya Tsuruta: “A Pilgrimage to the West and Return – the Case of Tanizaki Jun’ichirō”
Bibliography on Japanese cultural nationalism
Amstutz, Galen. "Modern Cultural Nationalism and English Writing on Buddhism. The Case of D.T. Suzuki." Japanese Religions 22.2 (1997): pp. 65-86.
Amstutz, Galen. Interpreting Amida: History and Orientalism in the Study of Pure Land Buddhism. State University of New York Press, 1997.
Antoni, Klaus, Kubota Hiroshi, Johann Nawrocki, and Michael Wachutka, eds. BUNKA - Tübinger interkulturelle und linguistische Japanstudien. Volume 3, BUNKA Tübingen intercultural and linguistic studies on Japan. (A collection of the 16 papers presented at an international conference on that topic in February 2001, organized by the Department of Japanology at Tübingen University).
Borgen, Robert. "Japanese Nationalism: Ancient and Modern." PMJS papers, 2000. [See archived comments by Nobumi Iyanaga, M. Joly Jacques, and Wayne Farris]
Cornille, Catherine. "Nationalism and Japanese New Religions." Nova Religio. Vol. 2.2 (1999): pp. 228-244.
Craig, Albert, "Fukuzawa Yukichi and the Philosophical Foundations of Meiji Nationalism," in Robert Ward, ed., Political Development in Modern Japan (Princeton UP, 1965), pp. 99-148.
Dale, Peter N. The Myth of Japanese Uniqueness. St. Martin's Press, 1986.
Doak, Kevin M. "Nationalism as Dialectics. Ethnicity, Moralism, and the State in Early Twentieth Century Japan." In Heisig, James W. and John C. Maraldo, eds. Rude Awakenings. Zen, the Kyoto School, and the Question of Nationalism. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1995, pp. 174-196.
Doak, Kevin. Dreams of Difference: The Japan Romantic School and the Crisis of Modernity. University of California Press, 1994.
Dower, John. Japan in War and Peace: Selected Essays. New York: New Press, 1993.
Dower, John. War Without Mercy: Race and Power in the Pacific War. New York: Pantheon Books, 1986.
Earl, David . Emperor and Nation in Japan. University of Washington, 1964.
Edwards, Walter. "Buried Discourse: The Toro Archaeological Site and Japanese National Identity in the Early Postwar Period," JJS 17: 1-23 (Winter 1991).
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