Sunday, January 30, 2005

Statement of Purpose


Thursday, January 20, 2005

TRANSLATION:

Friday, January 14, 2005

Japanese Grammatical Constructions


Japanese Grammatical Constructions



Compiled by Beholdmyswarthyface





                    Table of Contents



                        I. Some Example Sentences Composed By Beholdmyswarthyface in 2004, With Grammar Points Highlighted
                        II. Notes from A reference grammar of Japanese by Samuel E. Martin (1988)



                        III. More References








I. Some Example Sentences Composed By Beholdmyswarthyface in 2004, With Grammar Points Highlighted


*明るい子供が欲しかったことから陽子と名付けた。

*失礼極まりない(きわまりない。)The height of rudeness.

*その映画を見て、かんきわまってないた.The film was so moving that I cried.

*不愉快極まる会話だった. a most uncomfortable conversation.

*大げさにするきらいがある.

*学校で勉強するかたわら, アルバイトをしています.While studying at school, I also..   CF: Nagara, katagata.

*始めてのこととて, 失敗してしまいました. Because. Often used for excuses.

*田舎のこととて何もありません。

*めく。~like (e.g. springlike). 春めくと楽しい気持ちになる。

*経験がものをいう。Experience is what counts.



*こんな店なんか二度と来るものか. Mono ka usually include “nante” or “nanka.”

*寮長の警告を余所に、僕は恋人のところに夜這いした。

*僕が悪いこととは知りつつも夜這いしてしまった。

*彼女は俺からのお小遣いなくしてはこんな立派な女にはならなかったんだろう。

*「もう赤ちゃんじゃあるまいし、そんなことをするわけあるまい」と。

*それが半額になったところで、不必要なものは買わない。=だけで。

*あんたにあげたお小遣いは、1円たりとも、無駄に使うなよ!

*たとえ朋友であっても、裏切りは許すことができない。

*今の彼女にふられてしまえば、帰国するという、ただそれまでのことだ。



*夜這いに来るにせよ来ないにせよ、電話連絡だけはしてほしい。

*評論家から何と言われようが、自分の感覚を信じて、この小説を出版した。

*定価のいかんによらず(にかかわらず), こちらの商品はすべて半額になってる。

*行けるものならどこまでついて行きたい。

*父が亡なくなってからというもの、母は子供を育てるために必死で働き続けた。

*お酒は飲み方次第で、毒にも薬にもなるという。

*成功するか否かは、周囲の協力いかんだ(で・によって)。。

*わしのチンピラ恋人の幸せのためとあれば(あらば)どんなことでもやる。

*独力で生きてゆかんがために、なにか手に職をつけたいと思っている。

*彼は、早大の大学院に進むべく、今春会社を退職して受験した。

*会社に対する不満を並べ、揚句の果ては、辞めると言い出す始末だった。



            82-90: 因果。



*金欠病とあっては(=であるならば)生活もままならないのではないか。

*あなたがあっての私です。学生があっての大学です。

*彼の口ぶりからして(も)、彼がかなり自身のあるチンピラみたいなものだ。

*あんたのためを考えればこそ、この浮気関係をやめたほうがいい。

*未だ色々な事情を知らぬこととて、勝手なことを言ってしまって申し訳ない。

*自分の誕生日を忘れるなんて彼ならではのことだ! (Not sure about this usage.)

*心情をうまく伝えられないがゆえに、冗談に逃げる。



*…でなくて、何だろう?!

*電車の中でかわいい女性のパンツを見まいとして(も)、盗み見てしまう。

*誰かに助けて貰おうにも、言葉が通じなくて、とても困った。

*若い時から敬愛してやまない作家の全集を読破した。

*正直に謝ればいいものを、言い訳を作って責任をとらないから、親に叱られた。

*発表の結果には、どうしても納得できないものがある

*どれほど何といかにどんなに)辛いことか

*彼女はいかにも彼女らしい返事をした。One of her typical replies.

*さも(いかにも)まずそうに食べる。

*違反したことにより、退寮を余儀なくされた。



*セクハラは、酔っていたから責任がとれないではすませられない問題だ!

*この映画は、多くの観客の感動と涙を誘わないではおかないだろう。

*電車の中で、聞くともなしに、女子高生たちのおしゃべりを聞いていた。

*大地震の被災者の皆様に対して、誠に同情の念を禁じ得ません

*いくら頑張っても、親たちを満足させるに足るほどのよい成績は取れない。

*とても聞くにたえない酷い噂が出回っている。

*親の突然の事故死は、悲しみにたえない出来事だった。

*この彫刻は、万人の鑑賞に(も)たえる素晴らしい作品だ。

*。。それほど驚くにはあたらない。(それより驚くべきこと沢山あるから)。

*あの女はもう死ぬよと言わんばかりに身悶えをしていた。

*あの女優は、あたかも女王であるかの如く、周囲の人間をあごでこき使ってる。

*虐(しいた)げられてきた人々が、抵抗して反乱を起こしたのは、察するにかたくない(想像にかたくない・推測にかたくない)。



            11/11/06- 日本語能力試験一級泰作問題集より



*ものを(=のに)。知っていれば、迎に行ってあげたものを。。

*ものの(=が、)。デパートに行ったものの(が)、込んでいて何も買えなかった。

*彼は合格すべくして(当然のこととして)、合格した。

*今はそのことは知るべくもない.(不可能)。

*遠いところを(。。のに)よく来てくださった。

*足が痛くて歩くどろこか(はもちろん)立つことも出来ない。

*今忙しくて、映画を見るどころじゃない。

*ライアンが話す日本語は片言どころではない。



*さすがにオリンピックに出るだけあって、走るのが速いですね。

*日本語が上手ですよ。日本に10年いるだけのことはあります。

*時間におくれたばかりに(それだけで、残念な結果になった)彼女にふられた。

*彼は何かにつけて(どの場でも;色んな機会に)私のことを悪く言う。

*ときたら(非難をともなう)。あの人ときたら、いつも30分も遅れてくる。

*田中先生ともあろう(ほどの立派な)人が、そんな文を書くはずがない。

*見るだに(も;さえ)気持ちが悪い。夢にだに見たことがない。

*病気のため、余儀なく(仕方なく)、帰国することになった。

*彼の発言を皮切り(かわきり;スタート)に議論が行われた。

*あの子の顔を見るにつけ(て)、あの子の母を思い出す。



*とあいまって(と同時に)。

*とあって:金欠病とあっては生活もままならないのではないか。

*掃除をするそばから(そのすぐ後に)木の葉が散ってくる。

*女性だからといって、優しいとは限らない。

*美人とは言わないまでも、結構かわいいじゃない。

*片言ではあれ、日本語が話せるようだ。

*ダイヤモンドであれ(ではあるが)、ガラスであれ,光るものなら何でも好きだ。

*しかし=さりとて。それかといって。

*ついでに, 二つの目的を半分ずつ. 散歩がてらに手紙を出しに行く. 行きがてらに.

*かたがた。散歩かたがた銀行に行く。



*学校で教えるかたわら、自分の研究もする。

*ずくめ。黒ずくめの服装。いいことずくめ。

*時ならぬ(時と会わない)。ままならぬ。時ならぬ雪。思いもよらない。

*きわまる。たいへんである。たいへんである。失礼きわまる。

*となりのTVがうるさくてかなわない(=たまらない)。

*には及ばない。=そんな必要はない。お礼をおっしゃるには及ばない。

*まるで(あたかも)。。のようだ。

*雨をものともせずに出かけた。

*前にもまして(前よりずっと)苦しい。

*歩くことはおろか(は当然), 立つことも出来ない。

*今回ならともかく(=は別として)



*はともかく・あの店は雰囲気はともかく味はいい。

*はともあれ・何はともあれ、お金が欲しい。

*はさておき・何はさておき料理には焼酎。何はさておきおめでとう。

*はいさ知らず。

*お金はあるに越したことはない(その方がいいと思う)。

*日本人と結婚したいなら日本に行くに越したことはない。

*彼はものを深く考えすぎるきらいがある(=傾向がある)。

*これで別れると思うと悲しい限りだ。たいへん悲しい。



*しかるべきだ。-て当然だ。

*いかにも。様態の「そう」について「たいへん」の意味。

*彼はさも(いかにも)うれしそうに話している。

*まんざら=必ずしも。まんざらいやでもないらしい。

*とっておきのお金をつかっちゃった。

*さして(それほど)難しいことじゃない。

*あやうく。もう少しで。あやうく行くところだったけど。。

*ひとまず。とりあえず。この仕事はひとまずこれで終わって他のことをしよう。

*とっくに。ずっと前に。

*たかが(=ほんの)一回の失敗で落ち込んではいけない。たかが。。にすぎない。

*よもや(=まさか)信じられない。

*今とりたてて(わざわざ)ご相談するほどの問題じゃない。



*彼が怒るのは、むりはない・もっともだ・当然だ。

*けちをつける。彼の仕事にはけちをつけようがない(ちゃんとしているから)。

*けじめをつける。公私のけじめをつける。

*尻尾が出る。

*猫を被る。

*うってつけの。子供たちにうってつけの遊び場

*槍玉に上がる。彼が馬鹿なことをしたのでやりだまにあげられた。

*とってつけたような《=不自然な》笑顔.



*nani ka ni tsuke / nani kure to naku

*失業問題もさることながら(=も重要だが), 環境問題も大事だ。

*今ごろになって(ようやく)分ってきました。

*何やかや(=あれやこれや)と言いつくろって。。。

*なにぶん(=どうぞ)切手がなかったので手紙は出せませんでした。

*へたをすると(=油断すると).へたをすると, この問題は悪化していく.

*せいぜい。彼女はせいぜい(=多くて)5000円しか払わないだろう。





 


II. Notes from A reference grammar of Japanese by Samuel E. Martin (1988)




1. RESTRICTIVES AND QUASI-RESTRICTIVES



あがり:fresh from。役人上がりの実業家。

あまり:この一週間あまりをゆっくり楽しむ。

あたり:the sort of; per. あの人あたりに聞いてごらん;一人あたりが五千もする。

あて:the one addressed to;per。父親宛てに手紙を書いた;リンゴを一人あて三個。

ばかり: about、approximately.  この十分ばかりがつらい。

ばり: after the fashion of.  ピカソばりの抽象画を描くようになった。

べつ: classified by; excluding.  年齢別。時代別。府県別の人口。

びき: coated/plated with; at discount of.  人工的に合成したゴムびきのコートだ。

ぶり:息子のその成人ぶりを見て父は喜んだ。

だい : the level/mark of.  新聞しか買えない十円台。九時台の番組。

だい: (one that is) the size of.  小型トラック大の式のエンジン。小石大の雹。

だけに(あって): amount of/at least/exactly; just for being. 江戸っ子だけに口がうまい。

で(だ) : the product/graduate of。入学の難しい東大でだからエリート意識が強い。

でき:  produced by/at。 京都できの立派な織物。

どころ・どこ : “far from being/doing; hardly 忙しくて今はこの仕事どころじゃない。

どまり: up to (the limit of). この額どまりが妥当と思われる。

どおり: according to, like, as. 自由経済の原則どおり

どおし: (those) in company with.  舞妓や芸子どおしで使用されるものである。

がかり: requiring as much as, taking. 二日がかりで; 一人に五六人がかりで殴られた。

がけ :garbed in; multiplied by; ten percent of(わり. 新しい草鞋(わらじ)がけで.

がら:  by the nature of. 仕事がらの興味。身分がら。

がらみ: around the age of, about, around。四十がらみ。三十がらみを対象にする。

がた :  by about (a percent, a price level). 一割がた減った。

がよい:  traveling between; commuting to. 本を読める図書館通いをして苦学した。

ごし:  across/beyond, over. 放送を三年越しをやってました。透明な窓ガラス越し。

ごと: each, every. 一つの取り引きごとに。。

ごと: inclusive of, with . . . and all. 蜜柑は栄養のある皮ごと食べるとよい。

ぐるみ : throughout, the whole/entire. 会社ぐるみ纏めて夏休みなんて夢の又夢です。

いえん : and beyond. 周囲十キロ以遠は。電車は東京以遠は各駅停車となる。

いご : after, since, hereafter. 日本史は、その時代以後が難しい。

いか : below, under, less than. 其の点以下が落第です。

以降 : after, since. この四月以降。

いくつ : odd, and a few. 十いくつの方言。

いない : within, inside of; less than. この一キロ以内が危ない。

いっぱい : all through; within, before the end of. 私の力いっぱいだ。

か :under。こういう状勢下で。。

かぎり: to the extent of; limited to, only.  あの厭な事件かぎりそこを訪れるのを已た。

かっこう: (one who is) of about (age); with the look of.  六十格好のご婦人。

かん : between A and B; the interval of. 会社と従業員間に起こった労働争議は。。

けいゆ : by route of, via. 新幹線経由で届いた荷物だ。

けんとう: about (an amount of). この一週間見当が危ない。

きっかり: こっきり. 十時きっかりです。百円きっかりです。

きっての : the most N in all of. 彼はこの町きってのの名士だ。

こっきり : ごっきり exact amount. 十円こっきり(まで)だ。

こみ:including: 交通費別諸手当てこみで平均五万二千円。

こらいの  : traditional/native to. 方言の多い琉球列島古来の歌です。

くんだり :  all the way (to/from). 長崎くんだりからわざわざ来てくれた。

くずれ : a drop-out from:彼は新聞記者くずれだ。

まがい : もどき . 紛い物のダイヤモンド。

まぎれ :  in a mood of, in a state of, in confusion of. 賊は暗闇まぎれに逃げ去った。

まぎわに : at the moment right before. やっと学校から出て行ける卒業式間際に。。

まわり : けいゆ. 従兄弟が住んでいる神戸周りで行く。

みまん :  not yet fully, under (age/amount):二十歳未満の若年層。

もどき : imitating, in the style:つまらないヤクザもどきの出で立ちをして威張る。

むけ: bound, intended for.  自衛隊員むけの新聞を作る。

むき  : suitable for.  若い娘むきのものが多い。

ないがい :   approximately. 一週間内外かかる。

なかば : in the middle of. 一週間ばかり続いた試験半ばに病気になってしまった。

なみ : an ordinary example of, ほどの。 東大を卒業した人なみの給料を貰う。

なり: approximately to, to be expected of: 小さい子供なりの判断力。

おき: at intervals of; skipping (every so many). 適当な時間おきに薬を飲む。

ぽっきり : こっきり=ちょっきり :百円ぽっきりしかない。

しだい : depending on:相手が申しでる条件次第のことだ。

そだち : reared.  英国育ちの人。

そうとう :  (a price) of the order of. 八百円相当の中華料理の昼食が無料。

すがた : attired in. 日本髪すがたの女性が。。

たらず : less than.  切手は三時間たらずで売り切れだ。

ちかく: 同級生の半分近くが結婚している。

ちょっと: 苦労に苦労してやっと三時間ちょっとにまで延ばしていた。

わり:  at rate of . 印税はページわりでくれるわけだが。。

ぜんご : about, approximately. 今年の大晦日前後には子犬が生まれたでしょう。

ぞろい : a lineup, an array of. スマートな美人揃い。

づかれ : weariness from. 三日続いた激しい稽古づかれでとうとう寝込んだ。

づけ:  dated . .  さる六月十三日づけの朝日新聞は。。

づく :  by dint/force of; purely out of.  特別の懇意づくで。。

ずくめ : adorned with, swathed in, full of.  厳しい規則尽くめの中国で。。

づら : face of.  進歩主義づらのやろうどもが。。

づたい : following along.  打ち水に濡れた飛石づたいに。。

じょう(おん?):新聞や雑誌条に。私の立場条。





        2. DESCRIPTIVE PREDICATES



のが本来だ。    It is natural that . . .

のがせきのやまだ。 It is all one can do. 彼は平均点を取るのが関の山だ.

のが世の常である。

のが常だった。

のが通例だ。

のが常道だ。

のが実情だ。

のが目当てだ。  It’s one’s aim to

のが自慢だ。

というのが本心だ。

というのが共通意見だった。



        3.  CONVERSTION POSSIBILITIES



ーどうし だ:    keeps on doing/happens over and over: 殴りどうしだ。

ーきる:    読書に浸り切っていた。

ーがけに :  when about to. のついで。帰りがけに。



         4.  POSTNOMINAL VERBS AND ADJECTIVES



―めく    ハリウッドの女優めいたお化粧

―めかす   ハリウッドの女優めかしたお化粧

―ぶる    一流の学者ぶった態度だ。

―ばむ    黄ばむ。紫ばみ。汗ばむ。煤ばむ。Turns to

―ばる    格式ばる。形式ばる. Behaves like

―びる    大人びる。鄙びる。田舎びる。Becomes like.

―だつ    頭だつ。役立つ。旅立つ。

―だてる   系統立てる。そばだてる。秩序立てる。

―ぐむ    涙ぐむ。Shows signs of.

―さびる            神さびる。Becomes like.

―がかる            青みがかる。赤みがかった気色。Resembles, is close to

―げる                 馬鹿げる。Looks.

―がましい         弁解がましい言葉。未練がましい。Is like.

―たらしい         むごたらしい。ながたらしい。Gives feeling of being (bad)





        5. ADJECTIVES/ADJECTIVAL NOUNS THAT VERBALIZE



危ながる : その新しい計画を危ながっている。

有難がる :

新しがる :  新しがりや。

あつがる : 日本の夏を暑がる。

怪しがる :

えらがる :

歯がゆがる :

恥ずかしがる : 自分の不勉強を恥ずかしがる。

ひもじい : ひもじがる。hungry

息苦しがる : 現代の若者は生存競争の生活を息苦しがる。

忌々しがる :

愛しがる : いとしい。

口惜しがる : くちおしい。

待ち遠しい : まちどおしがる。Is impatiently awaited.



哀れがる : 舞台装置なんか、そう大事がらないような感じだった。

不安がる :

不愉快がる :



        6. LEXICAL NEGATIVES



非戦闘員:   noncombatant

非常識 :

非科学的 :

非戦災 :

非公開 :

非統制 :   uncontrolled

不賛成 :

不合格 :

不払い:   ふばらい

不渡り:  nonpayment

不決断 :  

不慣れ :  inexperienced

不行き届き :  negligent

不ため :

不人望 :  unpopular

不信用  :

不本意 :   reluctance

不釣合い :

不身持ち :          misconduct; profligate

不調法 :          ぶちょうほう     impolite; awkward   

不愛想 :        ぶあいそう         unsociable

無届け :      without notice

無考え :

無復員 :            demobilized





         7.  SOME VERB INFINITIVES



さし:  to point; subtract. 差し引く。代金を小遣いから差引く。





         8.  ADVERBIAZATION: THE CONCURRENT-CONCESSIVE (NAGARA)



及ばずながら :                  inadequate though I am

生まれながら :

よそながら  :                              indirectly, casually

涙ながら :

陰ながら :

さながら :

いつもながら :

微力ながら :         in my own small way

思いながら :               despite my intentions

いながら(にして):         from one’s armchair, without stirring

はばかりながら :

いやいやながら :

ついでながら :            incidentally

せんえつながら(僭越):     if I may presume





         9. VERBAL INFITIVE(+)



つつ :

がち :

たてだ :

づめだ : =つづける

どおしだ :  つづける

ざまに(様): と同時に、-てすぐ

しなに :  -てすぐ    ビルを出しなに。。。

がけ :   (かけ)  ―るついでに  起きがけに電話がかかってきた。

かけの :  吸いかけのタバコを棄てた。

ついでに : 行きついでに。。  家へ帰りついでに。。

っきり :  だけ;以来;のまま(―ぱなし)。寝っきりの病人です。

がてらに : 公園を散歩しがてらに。。。

かたがた :  顔を見かたがた、遊びに行くつもりです。=がてらに, ―るついでに

ぎみだ :  物価が少し上がりぎみだ。  Tends to; seems to.





         10.  LITERARY NEGATIVE INFINITIVE –(あ)ず+じまい



じまい: 彼には会わずじまいだった。



         11. LIST OF INFINITIVE-ATTACHED AUXILIARY VERBS



A. RECRIPOCAL



あう・あわせる: 褒めあう。通り合わせる。



B. INCHOATIVE or INCEPTIVE



はじめる・そめる :   読み初める。

かける・かかる :   働きかける。   暮れかかる。

だす :    呼び出す。降り出す。



C. COMPLETIVE



終わる・終える :

あげる :     洗いあげる。書きあげる。

きる :      買い切る。読みきる。

さす :    書きさす。聞きさす。Stops in the midst of doing

とおす : 話しとおす。歩きとおす. Finishes with; carries through to completion.



D. INTENSIVE



たてる :  書き立てる。 騒ぎ立てる。 Does vigorously and with concentration

まくる :

興じる :     笑い興じる。話し興じる。飲み興じる。



E. CONTINUATIVE



続ける・続く :



F. HABITUATIVE



つける(=慣れる):  呼びつける。 食べつける。見つけない顔。

ならわす,ならす:  呼び習わす。豊後を読み慣わす。Makes habit of.

まわる :

あるく :   飲み歩く。売り歩く。(=まわる)



G. ITERATIVE



返す : Repeats the doing of. 呼び返す。繰り返す。聞き返す。Transitive verbs only

かえる : Redoes DIFFERENTLY. 着替える。書き換える。買い換える。

なおす : Redoes DIFFERENTLY AND BETTER。読み直す。見直す。



H. EFFECTIVE



おおせる(遂):  manages to do, succeeds in doing 逃げ遂せる。やりおおせる。

える  (得):  あたう



I. INEFFECTIVE



あぐねる・あぐむ : (倦)wearies of doing; fails 探しあぐねる。

あやまる・まちがう :  見誤る。書きあやまる。

そこなう・損じる・そびれる :  読みそこなう。Misdoes.

違える :  読み違える。とりちがえる。

かねる :  Can’t do; finds it difficult to do. ついに堪り兼ねて。

切れない・あたわず :  いくら褒めても褒めきれない。

すごす :  寝すごす.

遅れる :  汽車に乗り遅れた。Too late; misses doing.



J. DEPLETIVE



はてる・はたす :  飽き果てる。成り果てる。Is finally reduced to.

あきる :  着飽きる

のこす : 飲みのこす。

そびれる : 言いそびれる。寝そびれる。Fails to do

しぶる :  出し渋る。言いしぶる。Begrudges doing; is reluctant to.



K. INGRESSIVE



こむ・入れる : 覗き込む。



L. EGRESSIVE



さる・だす :  飛び出す。逃げさる。



M. OTHER



はぐれる :  乗りはぐれる。Misses doing.

急ぐ : 売り急いで損をした。

あせる :  売りあせる。

こなす  : 哲学の本を読みこなす。Masters the doing of.

比べる :   ほらを吹きくらべる。

くたびれる  :  待ちくたびれる。泣きくたびれる。But 歩いてくたびれる。

まぎれる  :  読み紛れやすい- easy to misread.

迷う  :  どっちとも決め迷った。

のがす  :  みのがす。

ぬく :  Does it all the way; achieves (し遂げる)。戦い抜く。苦労しぬく。

おとす  :  肝心なことを言い落とす。Omits doing, neglects doing.

さらす・くさる(大阪弁) :  何してくさる?what the shit are you doing?

疲れる :  まちつかれる。

忘れる  :  とり忘れる。

やあがる,  やがる :   何をしやがる?

やらぬ  :  晴れやらぬ。Not quite fully unclouded.

よる  : (方言)雪がふりよる(降っている)。





        12. PHRASAL POSTPOSITIONS



を基礎として :

を基調として :     with Noun as keynote, basis

を模範として :                  modeling after N

を目的として :

を目標として :

をむねとして :

を主義として :

を主体として :

は別として :

を犠牲に(して) :

を契機(けいき)にして :         as the momentum, turning point

をもとに(して):

を下敷き(したじき)に(して):                         on the model of

を種に(して):

を担保に(して):      with Noun as a pledge

を手始めに(して):    with Noun as a starter

の報復にして :      in retaliation for Noun

 をたてにとって  :                     on the strength/grounds/pretext of Noun

に敬意をあらわして  :     out of respect for Noun

に照準を合わせて  :     setting one’s sights on N

の許可を得て  :

と協調で :

と共通に :          in common with

と馴れ合いで :         in collusion/conspiracy with

の刺激のもとに  :

のとりなしで :        through the good offices of

の催し(もよおし)で :       under the auspices of

の報いで・の報いとして :        in compensation

の埋め合わせ(のため)に :  to make up for N, by way of compensation for N

と仮定して  :            on the supposition that S

を言わず :          saying nothing of . . .

をかえりみずに :          despite (regardless) of

としゃしょうして :     under the assumed name of N

三日にあげず  :            every three days of less





        13.  MORE PHRASAL POSTPOSITIONS



とあいまって :       hand in hand with/coupled, conjoined with

をあいてどって :      taking on (as opponent), against

にあてはめて :      in conformity with

をあてこんで :       in expectation/hope of; arranged for (in anticipation of)

を弁護して :

を便乗(びんじょう)して :     aboard a ship; availing oneself of, taking advantage of

を代表して :

を同盟して :

に該当して  :                            corresponding to, applicable, deserving

に言及して :

と・に合同して :

を拝して :                                    in obedience to/in obeisance

を排して :

にはさまって  :                               sandwiched/caught between

にひきかえて  :        in contrast to

をひっくるめて :                            inclusive of, including

に瀕して :       on the verge of

に比例して :                                   in proportion to, proportionally with

に諷して :           alluding to

にかかって :         depending on; irrespective of, in spite of

にかこつけて :         under pretext/ pretense of

をかねて :           combing (for a dual purpose)

にかんがみて :         in view of, in light of, taking a lesson from

に換算して  :                                       calculated in terms of, converted to

にかたどって(象):     modeling/patterning after the manner of, imitation of

を/ときそって(競):                        in competition for

をきずかって :         for/in fear of

にこおうして(呼応):                   in agreement with/ in response to

にこうでいせず(拘泥):   independently of, irrespective of

にことかいて :                             of all the possibilities of/to . . ..

にことよせて :                                 under the pretense of

をくるめて  :                                      inclusive of, including

に屈しないで  :                                 in defiance of

ときょうぼうして(共謀):   in conspiracy with

と協調して :

にめでて  :                                             in consideration/appreciation of, in reward for

をめがげて :    敵を目掛けて突進する。

にめんじて(免) :                               out of consideration/respect for

を見こして :                                         in expectation/anticipation

をもくろんで :                                       with . . . in mind; contemplating

に成り代わって :                             instead of, on behalf of

になりすまして :       in the guise of, posing as; full-fledged

になぞらえて(準) :                          patterning/modeling after, in imitation of

とにらみあわせて :                        in the light of, in view/consideration of

にのっとって(則):                     following (pattern/precedent), in accordance with

をおぎなって(補):                    supplementary to

をおかして :                                  in spite of, braving, in the teeth of

を押したてて :                       with banners raised, displaying in front

と連合して :

と連携して :

と連盟して :

に際して      :                           at the time of, in case of

にさからって :

* からして

に則して :                             in conformity with; conforming to; based/founded on

に相当して :                               corresponding to; proportionate to; meriting

にそって  :                                complying with, satisfying

をすかして :                               (peering) through

をすかして(賺) :     機嫌をとる. Coaxing, persuading

と照合して :                                compared/checked/tallied with

をしょって(背負):                 under the burden of

に照らして :                                     in light of

にちなんで  :                             with reference to, by association with; associated with

にともなって :

を通って   :        by way of, via

を通して    :                                    through (the medium of), through good offices of

を通じて    :                                     through (the medium of), via; throughout, all over

につけて   :                                       in connection with

と連れ立って :        in company with

につりあって :

にちょうして  :                                   judging from/by, in light of

を予期して   :                                 in expectation/anticipation of

にじょうじて(乗じて):                 taking advantage of

にじゅんきょ(準拠)して :              in conformity to, in pursuance of

に順応して  :                                  in adjustment/accommodation with, in sympathy with                                        

に準じて  :                                  in proportion to/ according to/as





         14. LIST OF ADVERBS



A. Adverbs of Time



もっか : at present. 目下の急務だ。

もっかのところ:目下。今では。現在では。

せんぱん (先般):最近.

かはん(過般):先般、recently

過日:先日

このところ:近ごろ、 lately

先だって: the other day, recently, in advance of.会議に先立って。。

さしずめ:(1)結局;(2) とりあえず、at present/for the present

さしあたり・さしあたりのところ: for the present、とりあえず。

一見(したところ): at first glance

おりから:just then。折からの雨のため

あらかじめ:in advance

もはや:already; now; so soon

先刻:少し前。前から。先刻承知だ。

さきほど:少し前に。

さきに:(temporal) 以前;(spatial)前に

かねて:以前の。かねての計画

かつて・かって:昔、ある時期に。

従来(の)・従来どおり:hitherto、古来の

やがて・やがてのことに・やがては:before long, まもなく。

ほどなく:before long, soon、間もなく。

まもなく:それからまもなくの十二月二十五日。。

遠からず:in the near future

ゆくゆく:by and by; eventually、行く行くは。。(将来は、いつかは。。)

そうばん(早晩):sooner or later、遅かれ早かれ、いつかは。

ついに:finally

ようやく:ついに

すでに(して):そうこうしているうちに。さるほどに。

すんでに/すんでのことに/すんでのところで/もう少しで: any moment; very nearly

とうとう:at last、ついに、やっと、ようやく。

とど:at last (literary)、ついに

とどのつまり:in the end、結局。

せん、もうせん(先):

いつのまにか:気付かぬうちに

未然に:before it happens

のちほど:later on

こうねん(後年):in later years

いざ:いざになると。いざという時に。さあ!どれ!いで!



B. Adverbs of Duration



しばらく:(1)少しのあいだ;(2)長い間。

とうぶん:さしあたり、今のところ。当分その問題は保留にしておこう。

ざんじ(暫時):しばらく、一時的に。

いっとき:いちじ。

かたとき:わずかの間。かたときも忘れたことがない。

ひとまず:まず第一。

なが年:長年の付き合い。

ながらく:長らくお待たせいたしました。

ひさしく:彼は久しく歌っていなかった。

ながく:長いあいだ。長く勤めた。

ねんらい:10年来の厳しい冬. Coldest winter in 10 years.

としごろ:君は学校へ行く年頃ではない。

先般らい :しばらく前から

年がら・年中:年がら年中。All year round.

終日:一日中

しゅうや終夜:一晩中

夜通し:一晩中

よっぴて:よどおし

夜もすがら:よどおし

つねづね:いつも

ひっきりなしに:without letup、連続的に

のべつに/のべたら/のべつまくなしに/ひっきりなしに:のべつしゃべり続けた。

たえず:いつも。



C. Adverbs of Speed



さっそく・さっそくにも:早速でかけよう。

そっこく・そっこくには:即刻退場せよ!

ただちに:すぐに

さっさと:とっとと。

とっとと:とくととくと、さっさと。とっとと出て行け!

たちどころに:すぐ、ただちに。その薬はたちどころに効果が現れる。

げんかに:ただちに。彼は言下にそれを否定した。On the spot.

たちまちに:(1)すぐ(2)あっというまに。

いちはやく:ただちに。すぐに。いちはやく返事をする。

まっしぐらに:impetuously, at full speed、向こう見ずに。まっしぐらに突進する。

いきなり:とつぜん。

見る間に:みるみる。見る間に熱湯が蒸気に変わった。

急遽(きゅうきょ):hastily, hurriedly急遽帰国する。

やにわに:いきなり、とつぜん。やにわに怒り出した。

がぜん:とつぜん、俄然勇気が出た。

ひょいと:suddenly ふっと。ひょいと出くわした(偶然出会った)。

さっと:suddenly。さっと着る。

どっと:bursting out suddenly。どっと笑う。

おいそれと:readily, on short notice。簡単に。すぐに。ただちに。

だんだん(と):

じょじょに:だんだん



D. Adverbs of Frequency



いったん:(just) once。いったん封を切ると返品できません。

いっさい:once or twice

いちどならず:more than once

まれまれに:まれに。

しばしば:頻繁に

あししげく:頻繁に

おうおう(にして):しばしば、往々にして間違う。繰り返して間違う。

どしどし:in rapid succession; in large numbers

続々と:一つ又一つと。

かさねて:再び、repeatedly, 日を重ねて

ふたたび:again, twice

またもや:またしてもagain (undesirable)

またまた:またしても

またぞろ=またしても yet again (gratuitously)

よりより:from time to time

ときおり:ときどき

ときたま:ときどき

おりおり(に):ときどき

えて(して):頻繁に。ややもすれば。ともすると。Apt to.

しげしげと:しばしば

たびたび:しばしば

まま:ままある(often)。間々。ときどき。

さいさん:over and over。再三。

さいさんさいし:over and over again。再三再四

さいさい:often。再々申し上げたとおり。いくたびも。

年々再々:year after year、年々

朝な夕な(あさなゆうな):Morning and evening

朝な朝な:morning after morning

日に日に:day after day

よなよな:night after night

ひにまし:ひましに、ひにひに、 daily

随時(ずいじ):from time to time (literary):随時お越しください。



E. Adverbs combining Time and Frequency



かねがね:often before、かねてから。

さらに:anew



F. Adverbs of PLACE or ORDER



はるばると:afar, at a distance

次々と:

ひとつびとつ・ひとつひとつ:ひとつずつ。

いちいち:(1)ひとつずつ;(2)入念に、詳しく。

かわるがわる : こもごも(文)発言するby turns, one after another。こうご(交互)。

ちくじ(逐次)(文):successively, in order。逐次悪化。次々に。一つずつ。

順繰り(じゅんぐり)に:in order。順番に。



G. Adverbs of Degree (and Quantity)



いっさい : absolutely; wholly

すっかり: wholly。まったく・かんぜんに。

のこらず:ぜんぶ。一人残らず賛成した。

のべ:すべて・のべ百人の学者。総計。総額。総数。

あらかた:mostly, one the whole, for the most part。だいぶぶん;ほとんど。

ありったけ:all there is, the whole thing。ありったけの力を振りしぼる。

せめて:すくなくとも。

きょくりょく:to the utmost, as best one can。できるだけ。極力早く起きるように。

ことのほか:exceedingly, exceptionally; unexpectedly。殊の外くたびれた。

めっきり:remarkably. 彼はめっきりふけた。めっきり短くなった。

ふんだんに:lavishly, lots。豊富(ほうふ).大理石がふんだんに使ってある広間

わんさと・わんさわんさと:in droves (わんさガール)金がわんさとある。

たらふく:はらいっぱい、満腹。たらふく喰った。

たた:不備な点は多々ある。

たんと:lots。たんと気の毒がる顔つきおかし。

しこたま:quite a lot。しこたま飲む。

たんまりと:かなり多い

少なからず:。。が少なからずある

わりあいに:かなり、比較的に

きわめて:ひじょうに。

ごく:ひじょうに。

ごくごく:ひじょうに。

はなはだ:ひじょうに。はなはだ面白い。

きょくたんに:極度に

よくよく:extremely much; throroughly

だいぶ:mostly

たいそう:very (adjectival noun):以前よりたいそう賢い。

たいへん:very (adjectival noun)

ずいぶんと:ずいぶんと遅い話し。

大いに:greatly。非常に。彼女に話して得るところが大いにあった。

大して:greatly。それはたいして重要な問題ではない。

概して:generally。概して男性は女性より筋骨たくましい。

いったいに:in general

とても(2):どうしても。とても待ってなどいられない。

とんと:entirely; (not) at all:とんとかまわない。とんと忘れていた。

ぜったいに:

一向(に):まったく。。ない。

かれこれ:around, about, nearly

やく:おおよそ。

むりょ:no less than, as many as, approximately。おおよそ。もの多くの。

あらまし:almost, about (as noun: gist)。仕事をあらまし終える。

ざっと:roughly, approximately; briefly, sketchily。ざっと説明する。

おおよそ:

およそ:

こころもち:少しslightly, a little

いささか:いくぶん。

いくらか:

いくぶん:いつもより今日気分がいくぶんよい。

一概に:必ずしも。。ではない。一概にそうとは言えない。

根こそぎ:entirely:部屋の中のものを根こそぎ泥棒に持ち去られた。

ますます:いよいよ。

まして・ましてや: much more/less。読むことすらできない、まして書く。。ない

しみじみと:しみじみと語り合う。

平均(して):毎月平均して20名が申し込みます。

なお:(1)まだ:やらねばならないことが尚たくさんある。(2)(なお)いっそう。

なおさら:よけいなことに;なおいっそう。

ひととおり:briefly, roughly; as usual; tentatively。ま、一通りは知っているが。。



H. Adverbs of Manner



そっと:やわらかく、静かに。

内々に(ないないに):うちうち;ないみつ。

ぐんぐんと:どんどん、急速に。

こっそりと:ひそかに、内密に。

おもてむき:公式(に)、正式(に)。

でんと:conspicuously placed。彼はいつもでんと構えている。

ころころと:計画がころころと変わる。

そよそよ:さやさやと。

きちんと:整っている;正確に;規則正しく。



そぞろに:わけもないこと。落ち着かないさま。そぞろ歩く。

たって:熱心な、earnest.これは私からのたってのお願いです。

むげに:すげなく、きっぱりと、そっけなく。むげに断る。

るると:その手順を縷々と説明する。

つぶさに:念入りに、綿密に。その地域をつぶさに捜索する。

ちくいち:ひとつひとつ、詳細に。逐一に報告する。

ゆうに:ずいぶん、相当、かなり。彼は60歳を優に過ぎている。

しゅうねく:??

あくせくと:休む間なくせかせかと働くこと。

はからずも:思いがけなく;たまたま。図らずも彼にあった。

くよくよ:悩む、心配する。そんなささいなことでくよくよするな。

ふしょうぶしょうに:いやいやながら、しぶしぶ。

ひたすらに:本気で、真剣に。ひとすら祷るよりほかない。

あたふた:急いで、あわてて。彼女はあたふたとここを去った。

ずばりと:ずばりと言うと。。

なまじ・なまじっか:なまはんか。不熱心な。いい加減な。なまじっかの援助。

しいて:あえて。ことさら。

みちみち:途中で。道々お話しましょう。

したたか:甚だしい;てごわい、たくましい

つけつけと:無遠慮に。つけつけ文句を言う。

ぞくぞくと:一つ又一つと。

すったもんだ:ごたごたもめるさま。彼らは擦ったもんだしている。

よっさもっさ:



I. Adverbs of Evaluation



いやに、やに:とても。ひどく。今日はいやに疲れた。

おそろしく:

ものすごく:

めずらしく:

すばらしく:

とびきり:Most, best。彼女は飛び切りの美人。

はげしく:

やさしく:

いっそ:実に、本当に、まったく;むしろ、かえって。いっそ死んだ方がいい。

もろに:まともに。直接に。その値上がりは家計にもろに響くだろう。

ろくに:ほとんど。。ない。彼女はろくに微笑みもしない。ろくに眠れない。

まだしも:不十分ではあるが、それでも。ともかく。その方がまだしもだ。

みだりに:軽々しく。みだりに神の名を唱えてはいけない。

むりに:力ずくで。

むりやりに:強いて行うこと。

むやみに:前後を考えないさま;度を越すさま。

やたらに:みだり、むやみ。

むやみやたらに:むやみやたらに腹が立つ。

むしょうに:非常に。たいへん。無性に腹が立つ。

さんざんに・さんざっぱら:散々な目にあう。

いっぱし:いちにんまえ、ひとなみ。その子はいっぱしの口をきく。

さいわい(に):

ふこうに:

あいにくと:

立派に:

みんごと(に):立派(に)admirable。見ん事に堪忍しまするぞや。

ただでさえ:more/worse than ever。普通の場合でも。唯でさえ暑いのに。。



J. Adverbs of Logical Relation



かえって:欠点があるから却って彼女が好きだ。

むしろ:公園に行くよりむしろ動物園に行きたい。

ならば:もし。。ならば。必要ならばしてみる。

やはり:(1)同様に (2)それでも (3)思ったとおり (4)結局

それゆえ:したがって、その結果、だから。

なんだか:sorta, somewhat; for some reason

あんのじょう: as expected。彼が仲間に加わったら、案の定、旨く行かなかった。

ちなみに:ちょっと脇道にそれるが。。;これに関連して。

まのあたり:直接に。

あんに:それとなしに。暗に意味する。

まさに:precisely; just

しょせん・しょせんのところ:結局。

けっきょく・けっきょくのところ:

ひっきょう:けっきょく。

とうてい:とても、どうしても。到底無理だ。

ひいては:それが原因になって。身のためひいては家のため。

けだし:after all; probably

うまれつき:生来の、本来の。

せいらい:うまれつき。彼は生来寛大な人だ。

ゆらい:源泉。起源。発端(ほったん)。この習慣はロシアに由来している。

もともと:元来、生来;損も得もないこと。

がんらい:もともと。

そもそも:もともと。

しめて:in total. . .$。全部で、総計で。

いっせいに:同時に。一斉に答えなさい。

あいともに・ともに・いっしょに・ともどもに・もろともに:together

りょうりょう:両々。二つずつ;あれとこれと、二つながら。

てんで(ん)に:separately, respectively, each

かくべつに:べつに。

それぞれ、めいめい、おのおの:

すなわち・そく・とりもなおさず・まさしく:precisely, nothing but

つまり:id est

ひとよんで:what people call. .

ならびに:。。と。。。彼はインドならびに中国で知られている。

またのな:alias, aka。ライアンモリソン、またの名を権兵衛。

わけて:とりわけ、特に。彼は球技、わけてもバスケットが得意だ。

とりわけ・とくに・ことに・なかんずく:especially

ひとしお・ひときわ・いちだん:それだけいっそう、とりわけespecially.

たかが・ただ・たんに・たった:only, just, merely。彼女はたかが子供だ。

たかだか・たかだかのところ: at highest/most

せいぜい:at the outside; at most, to the utmost せいぜいのところ

ぎりぎり:ぎりぎりもぎりぎり

もっぱら:mainly, exclusively 専らのところは

なおなお:どうしても。



K. Adverbs of Sentential Relation: Assertion and Prediction



どうしても:必ず。いやでもおうでも。如何しても行かなくちゃ。

かならず:必ず。。であるとは限らない。

かならずしも:

いきおい:成り行き、当然で。事がうまくいかないと勢いいらいらするものだ。

ちかって:間違いなく。必ず。決して。誓っての約束。

さすが:さすがは彼は勇敢であった。

果たせるかな:はたして。予想通りに。はたせるかな、彼が試験に落ちた。

すべからく:by all means, necessarily (ought)。すべからく約束は守るべし。

ぞんがい:案外

たまさか:あんがい。たまさかの出来事。

てっきり:きっと;正確に。てっきり彼が勝つと思っていた。



L. DENIAL



たえて:ちっとも。絶えて怒ることはない。

けっして:

とても:どうしても、とうてい。

ちっとも:ちっともない。

まさか:まさか、そうしたんじゃないでしょう!

まんざら=not wholly。まんざら悪くはないけれども。。

とうてい:absolutely not。とうてい無理だ。

ついぞ:(not) at all, (not) ever。こんな綺麗な女はついぞ見たことない。

かいもく:(not) at all。私には皆目わからない。

まるで:

まるきり・まるっきり:(not) at all

てんで:それはてんで話しにもならない

からっきり:からきり、からきし。英語はからきしだめだ。

いっかな・いつかな : =どうしても。如何な承知しない



M. PROHIBITION OR REFUSAL



だんじて:ぜったい、けっして

ぜひ:(1)よしあし。喫煙の是非について多くの議論がある;(2)必ず。ぜひとも

どんな犠牲を払っても。。

どうか:どうぞ。どうか私の不注意をお許しください。

どうぞ:

何とぞ:どうか、どうにかして、ぜひ。



N. SUPPOSITION



たとえ:たとえこれがあったとしても。。

もしも:もしものことがあっても。。

まんいち:まんいち戦争が起こるとしても。。

よしや:たとい、かりに。



O. COMPARISON



あたかも・あだかも:まるで

ちょうど:(1)  ぴったりと ; (2)折よく   ; (3) まるで

さも:いかにも。さもまずそうに食べる。

まるで:



P. MISCELLANEOUS



なにぶん(とも): どうぞ. なにぶん切手がなかったので手紙は出せませんでした。

あいなるべくは:出来れば・よろしければ

なしうべくんば:出来れば

そこはかとなく:何とか・どうにか。あたりにはシクラメンを香りがそこはか

となく漂っていた。





        15. LIST OF COMMON CONSTRUCTIONS OFTEN PRECEDED BY DIRECT NOMINALIZATION



にあたいする:

にあたって:

にはあたらない(=には及ばない) :それには何ら驚くには当たらない

にふさわしい:

にいたる:

にいたっては:

にかかわらず:

にかわりない:

にこしたことはない:

にまかせる:

にまさる:

におよぶ:

にしくはない:及ぶものはない。如くは無し。

にしかず:に及ばない。百聞は一見に如かず。

にしのぶ:

にしたがって(=につれて):

にたえない:

にたりる・にたる:

にてきする: 人間が食べるのに適している。

にとどまる:

にとどめる:

につれて:

にじゅうぶんだ:

にうってつけだ:  私はこの仕事にはうってつけだ。

にしても:

にしたところが:

にしろ・にせよ:

にもほどがある:

と同じ・と同様:

と同時に:

とも限らない:

がはやいか:

がごとく(に):

がまま:

がために:

がゆえに:

もおなじ(こと)だ・もどうぜんだ:

をまたない:研究を推進するには,図書館の資料が不可欠であることは言うをまたない。

をえない:

のみち:

のほか:

のごときは:



        16. CONNECTORS AND SENTENCE-OPENERS; OPENING ELLIPSIS



いいかえれば:

一般的にいって:

ほかでもありませんが:

おおざぱにいえば:

概していえば:

別のことばでいえば:

たとえて言えば:

端的に言ってみれば:to put it bluntly

ありていに言えば: to tell the truth. . .

せんじ詰めれば: what it boils down to is. . 煎じ詰めると結局こうなる。

なお一つ付け加えていえば:

ちょっと話がそれますが:

うけたまわれば:I am told that . .

何べんも申しますけれども:

断っておくが:bear in mind that . . .

ときに:ところで。時に、君は僕の兄が結婚するのを知っていますか?

まんいちのことがあったら:

なにがどうあっても:

ともあれ:nonetheless、ともかく。結果はともあれ、本当によくやった。






III. More References





もっと詳しくは以下のものを参考にしてください。


1. http://www.geocities.com/easykanji/jlptgrammar.htm

2. http://www.jgram.org/pages/viewList.php

3. "A reference grammar of Japanese" / by Samuel E. Martin. Imprint Rutland, Vt. : C.E. Tuttle Co., 1988.

4. "Core words and phrases:things you can't find in a dictionary" / Kakuko Shoji





Thursday, January 13, 2005

A COLLECTION OF CUCUMIS MELO POEMS

A COLLECTION OF CUCUMIS MELO POEMS
WITH ESSAYS ON TAKAHASHI SHINKICHI, DADAISM AND TRANSLATION

by
Beholdmyswarthyface

December 2004

ABSTRACT

The following is the hitherto untranslated collection of 28 poems, Makuwauri shishū まくはうり詩集 (1921), the first published work by Japan’s first dada poet, Takahashi Shinkichi 高橋新吉 (1901-1987). Dada was an avant-garde movement that began in Zurich during the First World War and found its way to Japan shortly thereafter, where it was a major influence on the young Takahashi, who wrote dada poetry from 1921 until renouncing it in favor of Zen Buddhism in 1926. I have included with the translation an essay on dada’s birth and development in both Europe and Japan, some biographical information on Takahashi, a discussion of the poems of Makuwauri shishū, and some thoughts on my own philosophy of translation, in which I address the numerous problems—such as the handling of ambiguity and particularities of culture—facing any translator of poetry, but specifically the translator of Japanese poetry.


The following is dedicated to Professors Anthony Chambers, J. Timothy Wixted, Timothy Wong, and Jamie Newhard, without whom I never would have completed this project.



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would also like to thank my family, my most forgiving tutor Kaori Terashima, fellow members of “The Bridge Club,” and the ever-constant Dorcus, all of whom provided me with valuable input and helped keep morale high.



TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
CHAPTER
1 DADA IN EUROPE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
2 DADA OF TAKAHASHI AND JAPAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3 THOUGHTS ON TRANSLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4 TRANSLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
A Collection of Cucumis Melo Poems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
REFERENCES
An Annotated Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Other Works Consulted . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61
APPENDIX
CROSS-REFERENCE OF POEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63


Chapter 1
DADA IN EUROPE

* * * *

In order to determine whether the dada movement, which arose out of very specific circumstances in early 20th-century Europe, can be considered an authentic movement in Japan where the cultural, historical and literary tradition had been altogether different, one must first identify the factors that brought about European dada, and then determine whether they are are to be found in early 20th-century Japan as well.
In his book New Studies in Dada, Richard Sheppard writes of leading German dada artist Hans Arp that he “insists on the necessity of seeing his work and that of the other dadaists as a reaction to the madness and dehumanizing potential of technical progress which, in his view, had led to the bankruptcy of European culture and the murder of millions in the First World War” (Sheppard, 46). Seen in this light, dada is by no means limited to the European experience of the early 20th century; in fact, it can be argued that Japan’s mad rush toward modernity, which began with the Meiji restoration, was even more frenetic, uncompromising, and brutal than that of any other nation (although, of course, Japan would have to wait another two decades before it would see the kind of wholesale slaughter as seen in Europe during the First World War). The dada movement, therefore, should not be seen merely as something borrowed from Europe; rather, it was a genuine, native phenomenon that arose out of Japan’s own tradition and history for two specific reasons: first, dada was a natural reaction against the national aspiration to rival the Western powers in technology and military, and, second, the more subtle implications of the dada aesthetic struck a chord among artists and writers who saw in it some fundamental similarities to their own tradition, particularly with regard to Zen Buddhism. As a result, the dada of Japan developed into something quite different from the European movement which inspired it, much like Japanese Naturalism and, subsequently, the Japanese “I” novel grew out of European Naturalism (Keene, 591). Yet despite the fundamental differences, one must see Japanese dada in the context of the larger global phenomenon. David Macey, in The Penguin Dictionary of Critical Theory, defines European dada thus:

One of the classic avant-garde movements of the early twentieth century, and a forebear of Surrealism, Dada is also closely related to Futurism. Dada began its tumultuous existence at the Cabaret Voltaire in Zurich in 1916, when Hugo Ball, the Romanian poet Tristan Tzara (1896-1963) and others organized riotous performances designed to turn the ideals of art and culture into a programme for a variety show. . . Participants included [Hans] Arp, Marcel Duchamp, [Pablo] Picasso and André Breton.
Dada was an attempt to destroy meaning itself, and a nihilistic reaction to the futility and destruction of the First World War. The word ‘Dada,’ supposedly discovered after a dictionary was opened at random, was chosen as the group’s name precisely because it was meaningless, or had so many meanings as to challenge the concept of ‘meaning’ . . . Ball wrote: ‘Dada is “yes, yes” in Romanian, “rocking horse” in French. For Germans, it is a sign of foolish naïveté, joy in procreation and preoccupation with the baby carriage.’ (80)

By this definition, one would think dada to be chiefly a reactionary political or social movement, as it is often thought of today. But Tristan Tzara defined dada poetry in more aesthetic terms, stating that there are two kinds of poetry, “poetry as a means of expression and poetry as an activity of the mind,” and that dada was of the latter kind, which seeks to create art that conveys as authentically as possible the movements and layers of the subjective mind (Grossman, 20). This meant doing away with the artificial forms of prior literatures— including to a large extent formal syntax, narrative structure (especially the “I” narrative), fixed point of view, rationality, chronological progression of plot, and the idea of character. Dada artists even challenged the notion of significance in language, arguing that the there is no connective between the signified and the signifier, and they opposed what they considered to be the pretensions of mimetic literature, which, they believed, obfuscate the fact that, as the scholar of modern literature Peter Nicholls puts it, “there is no coherent world to be mirrored” (Nicholls, 228). Instead, there are only subjective associations, fragmented internal experiences, and “a confusion of words” that reveal little, if anything, of any ultimate or even corporeal reality. Such ideas can be traced back to 19th-century European philosophy, which indeed seemed to be moving away from rationalist theories of reality and mind, and toward a more subjective analysis that took into account both the subconscious— most famously articulated by Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)— and the limitations of language as a means of rational discourse— a notion famously summed up in 1921 by German philospher Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889-1951), who wrote “the limits of my language are the limits of the world” (Macey, 231). But dadaists seemed to be the first to genuinely understand the radical implications of such notions, and the first to apply them directly to art.

André Breton (1896-1966), French dada poet and novelist later turned Surrealist, famously made the distinction between dadaism and some of the other coeval artistic movements in Europe: “Cubism was a school of painting, futurism a political movement: DADA is a state of mind” (Nicholls, 224). Such notions about dada led Takahashi Shinkichi 高橋新吉 (1901-1987), the subject of this study and the author of the dada collection of poetry, Makuwauri shishū まくはうり詩集 (1921), to later assert that dada was merely an imitation of Zen, and that Tzara, Breton, and other founders of dada were, in fact, latent Zen Buddhists. Like Zen, dada was a way of seeing and interpreting the world in a way that denied the existence of the self or ego, doubted the possibility of knowledge, and, perhaps most strikingly similarly, relieved language of the burden of having to convey truth. As time went on, artists became more conscious of a connection between the two, and by mid-century, according to William Seitz in The Art of Assemblage, “It was the knowledge of dada, in part, which led certain modern artists, after 1945, toward Zen Buddhism” (Grossman, 169).

Therefore, with no ego through which to form the world, and rebelling against all forms of signification, the dada artists experimented in “pure-sound poetry,” or poetry that uses words devoid of all lexical significance, and instead implied meaning simply through association brought about by onomatopoeic noise (Nicholls, 225). As with artists such as Picasso, Tzara turned to the “primitive” cultures of Africa, writing several translations of African poetry, which he considered to be superior to the artificial styles of European poetry. For Tzara, poetry is best when it is “made in the mouth,” i.e., when its aural qualities are given primary importance. Tzara found in the African poems precisely what he and other dadaists had been seeking to create: poetry that undermined representation within language. Though Tzara would usually mix intelligible diction with nonsensical words, he would occasionally write or translate poems whose meanings were conveyed entirely through rhythm, as can be seen in his translation of this African poem: “dzin aha dzin aha bobobo tyao cahiiii hii hii” (Nicholls, 237). Takahashi would learn from such bruitist poetics, and use in bold and innovative ways giseigo 擬声語 (onomatopoeia) and gitaigo 擬態語 (mimetic words), which have always been ubiquitous in both colloquial and literary Japanese. When standard diction was used in dada poetry, it usually focused on Dionysian concerns of the id: desire, sex, food, sickness, death, and violence.

The result was, as intended, far from pretty. In fact, it was a blatant denial of art as a means of consolation. Nicholls writes, “Art is, as it were, hollowed out; deprived of its traditional power to redeem and legitimate the social order, its mask of ‘humanness’ falls away” (227). But this attack was not limited to social and political realities. Like Zen, dada was essentially a war against the “I,” for the “ultimate object of violence . . . is the ego, the self’s imaginary identity” (Nicholls, 230). This resulted in a poetry that was often incomprehensible, even when standard diction was employed, and that bore little obvious relation to the external world. French dada poet Pierre Reverdy asserted, “Reality does not motivate the work of art. One moves away from life in order to reach another reality” (Nicholls, 246). To achieve this conception of a new reality, Reverdy advocated the violent juxtaposition of phrases and images, a technique Nicholls described as the use of “fragmented phrases under high syntactical tension, produc[ing] a world tipped toward hallucination, a world of part-objects and half-glimpsed presences” (247). Takahashi would later effectively use such techniques, including that of “the startling image.”

This attraction to opposing elements can be seen as trivial and random, or it can be viewed as an intentional element found in all good poetry, only more jarringly apparent in dada. It is in the best dada poetry that there are connections, however subtle, between seemingly opposing elements; and it is such poetry that can, as the scholar of modern literatures Mary Ann Caws puts it, “remake the world as an analogical process . . . by the conduit of poetic vision” (Caws, 6). Caws continues, “Surrealist poetry or Dada poetry is not ‘art’ in the usual sense; it is rather the creation of a whole universe of relationships between seemingly opposed objects and ideas, even when the juxtaposition of those ideas includes the violent opposition of mood and vision within the creation itself” (30). What is interesting about this statement is that, what is considered innovative in the Western aesthetic tradition is the tradition in Japan. Japanese traditional poetry, not to mention Zen kōan, has at its core the notion of the “startling image” and the juxtaposition of seemingly disparate ideas, things or perspectives. Perhaps it was this realization that led Takahashi in 1924 to throw the dada novel he had been working on into the Korean Sea in a renunciatory gesture, and to begin his conversion to Zen— a move which recalls the famous Chinese painting of the sixth Zen patriarch, Huineng, tearing up a text.

For all of its flaws, “in the long run its omnipotence and its tyranny had made it intolerable,” writes Motherwell, quoting André Breton, 205. And despite its brevity (it began in Zurich in 1916 and disbanded in Paris in 1922), the European dada movement left a profound legacy on 20th-century art and thought, challenged the traditional assumptions of mind, language, perspective and reality, and opened up possibilities for new modes of art. Breton, disillusioned with what he called the “intellectual poverty of Dada” and “the vicious circle of its own making” (Nicholls, 242), moved on to Surrealism, which was an “alternating wave of the same spirit” (Caws, 7). Whether one was a practicing dadaist or not, its influence is traceable in American and European artists and thinkers as diverse as James Joyce (especially in Finnegan’s Wake), Henry Miller, e.e. cummings, Carl Jung, LeRoi Jones, Allen Ginsberg and the Beat poets, Pablo Picasso and Salvador Dali, and contemporary American poet John Ashbery (Grossman, 153-157).


Chapter 2
DADA OF TAKAHASHI AND JAPAN

* * * *

Dada found its way to Japan around 1920, and somehow managed to survive as a preeminent movement for half a decade, with only six central figures. The movement began with the publication of several informative, though not entirely flattering, articles about dada’s development in Europe, including those by the more sympathetic critics Tsuji Jun 辻潤 (1884-1944) and Katayama Koson 片山孤村 (1879-1933). In his article “A Study in Dadaism,” published in 1921, Koson delineated the three artistic principles required for practicing dada art, namely, “bruitism, simultaneity, and the use of new materials in painting” (Ko, 19). Another critic, Kawaji Ryūkō 川治流行, published favorable reviews of dada in the Waseda University literary review. There was also Moriguchi Tari 森口タリ, perhaps the most favorable critic of dada, who wrote for the Waseda University literary review several scholarly articles, including “The Poetry and Painting of Dadaism” (Ko, 21). But the most influential of the dada scholar-advocates was Tsuji Jun, who was at the time a well-established translator of foreign literature, including works by Max Stirner and Oscar Wilde. Tsuji provided Takahashi Shinkichi with moral support from the outset and wrote the postscript to Dadaisuto Shinkichi no shi ダダイスト新吉の詩 (1923) (Ko, 9). In 1922 he published two articles on dada, “Misunderstood Dada” and “Talk on Dada,” and, together with Takahashi, played a key role in dada’s permeation throughout Japan. Though it was Tsuji who in 1921 discovered Takahashi and soon after made possible his writing career, the friendship between the two did not endure after Takahashi abandoned dada for Zen; Tsuji instead moved toward nihilism and Stirnerean individualism (Ko, 80).

Nakahara Chūya 中原中也 (1907-1937), who would later become one of Japan’s most esteemed Symbolist poets, was only sixteen when he first read Takahashi’s Dadaisuto Shinkichi no shi, which so entranced the budding poet that for several years he read only that. After dada had more or less disbanded, Nakahara continued writing dada poems until he made the switch several years later to Symbolist poetry after reading French poet Arthur Rimbaud. Nakahara is still considered by many to be, at least in part, a dada poet (Ko, 106).

The sixth and most important figure in Japan’s dada movement was Takahashi Shinkichi, who was born on January 28, 1901, in a fishing village near the city of Matsuyama in Ehime prefecture, in northwestern Shikoku. Shinkichi’s mother died when he was eleven, and his father took a second wife in 1916. Shinkichi was largely self-educated (Stryk, 13), having attended only commercial school education from 1913 to 1918, the year he decided to secretly run away penniless to Tokyo. This first peregrination to the capital would later be recorded in his dada novel Dagabaji Jingiji monogatari ダガバジジンギヂ物語, and various impressions and images from his stay in Tokyo can be found in Makuwauri shishū as well (Hirai, 301-302).
After returning home and working various jobs in Ehime, in 1919 he made a second trip to Tokyo, where he soon contracted typhus and would have to spend most of his time recovering. The disease drove him to the brink of madness, and he would not fully recover until 1932 (Stryk, 17). Takahashi later half-jokingly recalled that it was largely due to this illness that he took such an interest in dada (Hirai, 301-302).

In 1920, his poem “Honoo o kakagu” 焔をかかぐ won a prize in the newspaper Yorozu chōhō 万朝報, the same paper that soon afterward introduced Takahashi to dada through several articles about Tristan Tzara and other European dadaists. Once back in Ehime, he worked at the local newspaper and began to publish various poems. In 1921, the year he became an apprentice monk at a Zen temple, he began a first edition of Makuwauri shishū まくはうり詩集, which he showed to the newly befriended Tsuji Jun, who would later edit the 1923 collection Dadaisuto Shinkichi no shi (Hirai, 301).

During the next year he made the acquaintance of futurist artist Hirai Kenkichi 平井謙吉and novelist, poet, and critic Satō Haruo 佐藤春夫 (1892-1964), who would write the introduction to the edited 1923 collection. 1924 would see his return to Tokyo and the publication of his first and only dada novel, simply titled Dada ダダ. It was after its publication that Takahashi’s writings and studies would take a turn away from dada and toward Buddhist literature, culminating in 1926 with him throwing overboard into the Korean Sea the manuscript for a second dada novel, and, perhaps more importantly, in 1928 with the invitation by a prominent Zen master of the Rinzai sect to study as a disciple at Shōgenji 勝源寺, “a temple well known for the severity of discipline” (Stryk, 14). In 1926, the year he disavowed dada, he published Gion matsuri 祗園祭り, the collection of poems that marked his final move away from dada (Hirai, 302). The next year, while serving jail time for disorderly conduct, Takahashi was handed a copy of his own 1923 Dadaisuto shinkichi no shi, which at that time he had still not seen in its final, published form. He was so disgusted by the collection, which he felt to be an over-edited betrayal of his “artless yet beautiful and spontaneous” Makuwauri shishū (Hirai, 34), that he immediately tore it up (Stryk, 13).

His transition from dada to Buddhism, however, may have been smoother than he portrays in his diaries, since both systems of thought hold as one of their fundamental assertions the notion that “the word is useless and poetry is to be abandoned” (Stryk, 19). In the end, dada, ironically, served not as Takahashi’s introduction to European culture and literature, but rather as an introduction to his own native tradition. Let us now look at what the importation of dada specifically meant to the world of Japanese poetry in the early part of the 20th century.

After centuries of writing in the strict metric patterns of classical poetry—chiefly that of the waka, made up of a fixed arrangement of thirty-one syllables in groups of five and seven—Japanese poets in the 1910s began to experiment with new ideas of meter, accent and rhythm, many of which had been imported from the French Symbolist poetry of the 19th century. The experimenting poets, however, soon realized that, since there were no accentuated syllables in Japanese, Western ideas of meter were not applicable, and they soon returned to their native syllabic system, upon which they would begin develop new forms (Keene, 256). Soon after publishing Tsuki ni hoeru 月に吠える (Howling at the Moon) in 1917, Hagiwara Sakutarō 萩原朔太郎 (1886-1942) was already being celebrated as the master of Japanese free verse, despite the fact that many of his poems were “in the classical language and in regular meter, each line consisting of seven plus five syllables” (Keene, 263). About this collection Hagiwara later wrote: “All the rhythms of the lyric poetry of our time were engendered here. In other words, because of this collection a new epoch was created” (Keene, 264).

Once a viable substitute for the old meter had been established, modernist poets, including Takahashi, were forced to create a new “musical” system to replace the old, so that their poetry could be distinguishable from prose. In the case of Takahashi, he seems to have heeded the advice of the French Symbolist Gustave Kahn, whom Keene quotes as writing in 1885: “Free verse, instead of being, as in old verse, lines of prose cut up into regular rimes, must be held together by the alliterations of vowels and related consonants” (272). The poetry of Takahashi is replete with such alliterations and sound play, which give the poems a musical quality otherwise lacking in free verse form, and which, along with rhythmic patterns reminiscent of traditional poetry, link his poetry with the waka of the past. An example of such alliteration is found in poem 3, where the a sound, often followed by an i sound, appears several times within the first five lines:

shōji o araiyoru to
akainu ga mizu nomi agakuroi shita
funedaiku no naigi san
imo arai jūjika no rantō
nagarete kita nappa

In poem 4, the phrase “musume o musubitsukeru na” suggests that the appealing repetition of sound is of primary importance, and that the less important aspect of meaning arises out of the sound. A similar pattern can be found in poem 6, where the i sound appears in rapid succession at the end of the poem:

kaguroi aki no hi no sansaku no kaeri
yonri bakari kisha ni notte
kuregata no momiji
itaitashii onna . . .

The first line in poem 15 also seems to have been chosen for the euphonic effect produced by the repetition of “m” and “o” sounds—“misoya no musume mo”—which are again found in lines 8 and 9 with “moro-moro no onna wa / moro-moro no otoko ni.” Again in poem 17, “subject” and “meaning” are determined by the sound of the first three lines:

tōfu ya ga kita
to o shimeta
to-fu mo nama-age mo

The alliteration in the first two lines of poem 19 is so effective as a sort of bruitism that the reader might forget that the words bear any meaning at all:

komo o kabuseta
kemuri ka hoke ka shiran

Rhythmically, too, the poem has the feel of the traditional waka meter, with the first line having exactly seven syllables, and the second line having up to but not including the word “shiran” seven syllables. The poem continues:

sasabune ni
hana o susuru oto
akakama de mizu o sukuu to
sokozumi ga . . .

By this point the lines are alternating roughly between five and seven syllables, with the exception of line four, which can be considered a ji-amari 字余り, having eight syllables. The pattern continues, though irregularly, all the way to the end of the poem, which concludes with the five-syllable line, “ō sumibi.” Throughout the 28-poem collection, such rhythmic and alliterative devices are used to provide the poems with some of the musical qualities of earlier Japanese poetries, without having to abide by the rules of the past.
Another example is found in poem 20, which seems to be driven by the long ō sound that conspicuously appears seven times in the first nine lines. In poem 21, the sentence’s syntactical construction, which somehow oddly resembles that of a Whitman poem, particularly “Out of the Cradle Endlessly Rocking,” is an effective use of parallelism—here a catalog of renyōkei 連用形, or adverbial, clauses—which gives most lines of the poem a final “te” syllable:

kiri momu ureshisa
te o awashite
chikara o komete
yubi o sorashite
koyori o sashite . . .

Finally, in the first three lines of poem 23 we see both highly condensed alliteration and rhythmic experimentation:

haru to aki to mirai o nikumu
rakuhaku gaka
K no haha ga . . .

Although Japanese is for the most part a language without stress, it almost seems as if the first line can be divided into four sets of triplets or dactyls. The dactylic tetrameter is then immediately terminated by the next two lines’ nearly throchaic trimeter. The aural effect of the poem’s alliteration is made all the more powerful through the rapid succession of cacophonous a, ra, ga, ka, ha and ku sounds.
Though the poems in Makuwauri shishū are written mostly in free verse, the traditional rhythmic pattern of the alternating five and seven syllables is so ingrained in his style that, whether intentional or not, many lines can be divided as such. Often there will be one line consisting of both a five-syllable and a seven-syllable phrase, or simply two seven-syllable phrases, as is seen toward the end of poem 4:

akai gohan no // yume o mite.
tōsan no mago ga
aoi osake no // shōben shita. . . .
yume to shōben to // mazaranakatta.

Such examples are numerous, demonstrating that the habits of traditional poetry die hard even among the most progressive of poets.



Chapter 3
THOUGHTS ON TRANSLATION

* * * *

Agreeing with Vladimir Nabokov that “free translation” is a term which “smacks of knavery and tyranny” (Schulte, 127), I have tried to be as faithful as possible to the linguistic features of Takahashi’s original work. Since, in poetry, form and content are inextricably linked, realizing this goal requires stretching the bounds of the English language so that it may convey more accurately the nature of the original. Therefore, I have tried to do what Schleiermacher, in his “On the Different Methods of Translating,” advocates, i.e., to move the reader toward the writer, and the target language toward the source language, thereby making the qualities of the Japanese language, diction, grammar and idiom apparent to reader (Schulte, 36-54). Dryden’s claim to “make Virgil speak such English as he would himself have spoken, if he had been born in England and in this present age” (Schulte, 26) might be the ideal method of translation if it were not for the fact that it is language that makes thought possible; in other words, without some sort of system of signification, there would be no mental activity. Schleiermacher also points out that one’s native language both allows and prohibits what one can say or think (Schulte, 36-38) and it is therefore unrealistic to try to imagine what, in my case, the 20th-century Japanese poet Takahashi Shinkichi might say or think in contemporary American English. But the translator, knowing well only his contemporary native tongue, must have a starting point, and, unless he is a philologist or polyglot of genius, Dryden’s advice seems to be the most appropriate. In translating Takahashi, who writes for the most part in colloquial Japanese, often using his native Ehime dialect, I have employed the vernacular American diction, trying to limit diversion from this only to instances where Takahashi diverts from everyday modern Japanese. Moreover, in trying to produce in translation what Walter Benjamin called an “echo of the original” (Schulte, 77), I have attempted to construct English sentences, or fragments, which structurally resemble those of the Japanese.

Since I am advocating moving the target language toward the original, I do not find it necessary to leave in what translator Howerd Hibbett calls “particularities of culture,” unless they are words that have already made their way into the Oxford English Dictionary, as is the case with the words “soba” and “miso.” For all other particularities, the foreignness should already be sufficiently conveyed through other means, without having to dangle exotic new terms in front of the reader.

The poems in Takahashi’s Makuwauri shishū can be categorized into two styles. The first is a fairly straightforward and prosaic style that, though it may be full of subject-less sentences and non-sequiturs, is syntactically clear. Nineteen of the twenty-eight poems included in the collection fall into this category. The remaining nine poems are made up either entirely of fragments, or of fragments interspersed with some unifying syntactical devices. Semantic or structural ambiguity is possible in both types of poems, but is more prevalent in those that are more fragmented. Let us examine some specific examples from both types, and the problems of rendering such ambiguities into English.

Determining whether a verb is in the rentaikei 連体形 (attributive form) or in the shūshikei 終止形 (terminating form) is perhaps the most recurring problem in translating Japanese poetry, and Takahashi is no exception. When intentional, the poet’s technique of utilizing this syntactical ambiguity can be very effective in packing several possible meanings into a small space. The difficulty lies in deciding in which instances are the multiple meanings intended, and in which are the sentences to be read as having a full stop at the end of the line. Poem 24 provides an example with the two lines: “kisha mo densha mo nai / shinzō mahi.” Since Takahashi uses punctuation so sparingly, it is hard to tell whether he intended there to be a full stop after nai, a form that can be either attributive or terminating. “Shinzō mahi,” or “cardiac arrest,” is therefore either a startling image that splits the previous sentence from the following one, or a noun modified by the previous line, translated roughly: “A cardiac arrest at which time there was neither a steam train nor an electric train [to haul the sufferer away to the hospital].”

It is not only a lack of punctuation that often makes the meaning ambiguous; there is also a reluctance on the part of the poet to use particles, such as wa, ni, and o. In the fairly fragmented poem 3, the sentence begins as if it will be grammatically cohesive, but soon breaks up into a string of nouns:

shōji o araiyoru to
akainu ga mizu nomi akakuroi shita
funedaiku no naigi san
imo arai jūjika no rantō
nagarete kita nappa

itai bōfū
ki ni suru sōrō teiden
furuete ita
gatagata itado
neta ga tsuete tatami no hazama
aodake ga haederu . . .

After this rather long digression of nouns and relative clauses, the poem returns to full grammatical sentences; interestingly, in these eleven lines some particles are left out for the reader to fill in. The image of the dog begins as a general description of a scene; but the camera suddenly zooms in to a particular image within the larger scene, namely, his red tongue. The focus shifts then again to the wife washing the sliding door in the river, zooming in first on a physical detail—her washing the potatoes, and “the scuffle over the crucifix”—and then on to psychological particulars—“the premature ejaculations about which [the poem’s narrator] worried.” The relationship between such images is thus open to numerous interpretations.

Another example of the omitted particle is found in the following lines of Poem 7:

hyaku mon hassen no miso o
isshakushi zutsu irete
niko no daikon o
mangetsu no yoru
chiisana rinka no yasaien kara . . .

If the ni particle had been given after yoru, grammatically the sentence would have made perfect sense. However, Takahashi instead intentially omits the particle, thereby interrupting the description of this kitchen scene with a sudden pan to the night and its full moon. Since “under the night’s full-moon,” “at night, with its full-moon,” or something similar, is implied but not made explicit, the translator is faced with the choice of making explicit in English what is implied in Japanese, or trying to render the English as ambiguous as the original. The problem is that Japanese is much more conducive to indirection and subtlety, whether it be due to the absence of a particle, a preposition, or even the subject of the sentence; by contrast, English seems to be wordier and more direct. It is a daunting task to construct sentences in English where the relationships between parts of speech are not clear, i.e., where it is not clear that a certain verb belongs to a certain subject, another to the predicate, and so on. Writing subject-less sentences is even more difficult, though I have made an attempt in poem 7, which in the original is entirely without any agent. The result is no doubt awkward; still, it is an attempt, though perhaps extreme, to bring the reader as far as possible toward the Japanese. Since it is entirely unclear whether the poem is narrated in the first, second, or third person, I thought it would be presumptuous to make that determination myself, and I therefore translated the poem without a subject. In other cases, my choice of the word “I” to represent the narrator was often an arbitrary one, since in the original it is not always clear whether the speaker is referring to himself or someone else. Even when the “I” is explicit, the narrator and the poet should not be treated as one, and there is much evidence in the poem to demonstrate this, particularly in all the references to various illnesses which Takahashi himself never contracted.

Finally, there is the problem of articles. Since they cannot be disposed of entirely in English, the translator must decide whether to use definite or indefinite articles. The choice is determined case by case, depending partly on consideration of euphony and partly on consideration of context. However, I cannot think of any categorical rule that can be extracted from my usage.
The following translation is intended for the reader interested in poetry.


Chapter 4

* * * *

A Collection of Cucumis Melo Poems


Makuwauri shishū まくはうり詩集



1
Shall we begrease the glee?
Might get slippery
Might as well be dead

the girl with the sallow face
blue-yellow girl
the girl

unknown man

All those wanting to eat the oden stew
made from putrefied sun, encephalon
welcome to the darkful dada-hermitage
bulging out of your skulls like rice cakes.


downstairs is red felt carpet

a collapsible dining table
rice crackers

the Metropolis

yukai o aburakkoku shite mimashō ka
tsubekkoku naru yo
shinjimai nare na
kao no aokimusume
aokina musume
musume
shiranai otoko

furan shita taiyō to nōzui no
oden ga tabetai hito wa
omaesantachi no zugaikotzu o
senbei no gotoku hohobarinagara ankoku no
dada-iori made irasshai.
shita ga himōsen
chabudai
senbei
toka
2



Owing to the sun falling
Only on my right cheek and my left cheek’s freezing
I’m sick of walking
Despite wearing these new tight-fitting drawers
I slip into the embankment choked with steaming manure
Without dissolving into tears.
Passing under the arm toward the heart’s vicinity
The dim flickering autumn winds
Deride both the red dragonflies
And me
Thrashing us with culms of bamboo
No time to brush them aside
Seeing the river surveyor
Throw down his snipe
Seems a terrific atrocity
To the schooolgirl heading home behind me.
Pressing my brow against the telephone pole
To bear it up
I hunkered down, into a ball.



migi no hoho bakashi hi ga atatte
hidari no hoho ga samui no de
watashi wa aruku no ga iya ni natta
atarashii patchi o haite kita no ni
bafun de musekaeru dote e zunde
samezame to nake mo shinai.
waki no shita kara futokoro e
kagerou aki no kaze ga
akatonbo to
watashi o ijimeru no da
takegire de shiwaitate
shiwakeru no de nashi
kasen no sokuryōgishi ga
suigara o hotta no o miru to
ushiro kara kaeriyoru jogakusei ni
itai zankoku ka mo shirenai.
watashi wa denshinbashira o sasaeru you ni shite
hitai o oshitsukete
karada o chijikomarashite shimatta.


3




When scrubbing the sliding screen
the red cur drinking water, auburn tongue
the boatman’s wife
scrubbing tubers the scuffle over the crucifix
and the greens that flowed toward her

terrific windstorms
the dreaded premature ejaculations and blackouts
shivering
rain-shutter ricketing
the wooden joist collapsed between the mats
out sprouts green bamboo
should our shanty be whisked away
so long as we hold on all’s okay
filth-strewn
a rope tied round its withered reeds
the sliding door’s eclipsed my head

but if you’re going to buy paper
buy potatoes instead
these fingertips that picked up the scrub brush
now felt cold
riding the sliding screen toward the light grey bank out beyond
body quivering
I stopped these cogitations.



shōji o araiyoru to
akainu ga mizu nomi akakuroi shita
funedaiku no naigi san
imo arai jūjika no rantō
nagarete kita nappa

itai bōfū
ki ni suru sōrō teiden
furuete ita
gatagata itado
neta ga tsuete tatami no hazama
aodake ga haederu
yabureya ga fukitobasarete mo
tsukamattereba daijōbu da

hanarete atama no ue e okkabusatta.
kareashi ni nawa o shibaritsuketeita
gomidarake no shōji.

kami kau nara
imo kai nare
tawashi o tsumanda yubi no saki ga
tsumetaku kanzerareta.
senboku iro no mukōgishi e shōji ni notte
dōburi shita no de
sōzō suru no o yameta.



4


Night
went to buy koniak
late
dead drunk flames rise from the red split wood
tongue the sky’s base, an empty coffin.
morning
a middle schoolboy came carrying octopus legs
boiled them in the earthen pot
eat the koniak, middle schoolboy
now that it’s moist

he said that inside the mattress
his stomach is cold and hurts

in the midday autumn the sky is towering
bringing hog’s-meat he came again
to where in the eye half-closed with sleep
toothpowder had been scattered.
“Shall I give up the ghost?”
“now here me this, middle schoolboy
descending the embankment:
marry neither the housemaster’s daughter
nor the temple girl yet feast
leave no taste on the testamentary
which even without sugar is saccharine”


yoru
konnyaku kai ni itta.
osoku
berobero akai warigi no hi ga
kūki no soko made nameagatta.
asa
chūgakusei ga tako no ashi o sagete kita
tokama ni nukumete
nita
chūgakusei yo
konnyaku o kue
pitapita ni natte iru

futon no naka de itta
hara ga samui to itai

mahiru no aki wa sora ga takai
neboke-manako ni hamigakiko ga
chirakasareta toko e
butaniku o sagete mata kita
“ore wā shinjiyō ka”
“chūgakusei yo
dote o orite mannaka no ie no shu to
tera no musume o musubitsukeru na
shikashi kue
sugar nashi demo amai
kakioki ni wa aji o tsukenan na”


5




Spermatorrhoea


Mother’s child
dreamt of crimson rice

Father’s granddaughter
pissed a green-blue liquor

the son and granddaughter went their separate ways
their dreamage and urine never mingling.



kāsan no ko ga
akai gohan no yume o mita.
tōsan no mago ga
aoi osake no shōben shita.

musuko to magomusume to betsubetsu ni natte
yume to shōben to mazaranakatta





6


This one bound for U station?
Come face to face with me she
When through the window I see through the woman’s flank
—Station U.
My, what a hale old lady.
“The thread’s stuck to the apron,
Which I take out and smooth.”
She strokes her knees, restless
And sees the thread unraveling
At the apron’s stitched end
And picks at it, tosses it aside.
Oblivious to all around
O unsmiling old lady.

Roaming home on a pitch-black day in fall
Riding for well-nigh four and a half miles the steam train
At the end of the day the red autumn leaves:
O wretched woman
Never seeing such things.



U-yuki deshō kore——
sashimukai ni kakete kita kanojo
mado kara yokoppara o nozoku to
U-yuki.
kenkō sō na bāsan datta.
maedare o dashite shimedasu
ito ga kuttsuite iru yo——
kanojo wa urouro hiza o sasurimawasu
maedare no hashi ni kukete atta
toki no koshi ni ki ga tsuku
sore o mushitte suteru.
kanojo wa omotte mo kure mo shinai yōsu de
warai mo shinai bāsan.

kaguroi aki no hi no sansaku no kaeri
yonri bakari kisha ni notte
kuregata no momiji
itaitashii onna
sonna mono wa minai.

7


On occasion with an abundance of rice
Other occasions with abundance of yam
Each daybreak cooked the rice porridge.
Drawing from the Tone-gawa
A bucketful of water
Adding miso a hundred momme for eight sen
A ladle at a time
Uprooted
Whittled away at tossed in
Two radishes the night full-mooned
From the little vegetable garden of the adjoining house.
First thing in the morning
Knocked down with a pole and ate
The mellowed persimmons
Extending a hand
Wresting off
Rinding a mandarin from who knows where
Atop the wall below the fence
The garden’s entrance below the eaves
Where fall leaves pile up withering still, and rotting
Particularly toothsome—
Even the leavings
The paper handkerchief
A pocket-handkerchief
Slipped into the sleeve
Heading for the empty hovel
Soundlessly shiftily as always
Toenails preceeding
And into the futon under the light cord’s dangling
Fall to sleep.


aru toki wa kome o ōku shi
aru toki wa imo o ōku shi
maiasa ojiya o taita.
tonegawa no mizu o baketsu de ippai dake
kunde kite
hyaku mon hassen no miso o
isshakushi zutsu irete
niko no daikon o
mangetsu no yoru
chiisana rinka no yasaien kara
hikkonuite
kezutte
ireta koto mo aru.
kaki ga urete
neoki ni imo de tataki-otoshite
sore bakari kutte ita
ha ga niwaguchi no nokishita
ochi-tsumori kare-kusaritsutsu aru
doko ka no mikan o
hei no ue ka kaki no ma kara te o nobashite
mogitotte
kawa o hagu to
kaburitsuku hijō ni oishii.
tabekasu mo
hanagami mo
hankechi mo
sode no naka e irete
dare mo inai jibun no abaraya e
itsu mo usankusaku oto no shinai yō ni
tsumesakidatte
dentō no himo no taresagatta shita no
futon ni haitte neru.


8


I’ll piddle on it since I heard when you piddle on an earthworm its eyes fail. Under the stone’s shadow beneath a cosmos hooded in the straw mat of a cloudy day calmly guarding her chastity while never seeming to do anything the earthworm, out of work . . . jō jō I piddle: twisting and turning on a belly slightly chafed and pale she capers about like a virgin, shamefaced: I finish up: she stretches out and is still: I lean in wanting to finger her. Thinking she had stiffened up and died I begin trifling with her: she breaks feebly into a crawl: sniffing about in pursut of tail one prurient black vermin flies about evasively like one pining for a lover, romping through brambles seeking the root of some nameless grass, the fault lies with the fickle: I stood up stretching my back.



mimizu ni shōben o hirikakeru to
me ga tsubureru to iu koto o kiita koto ga aru.
sore de wa hirikakete miyō.
kumori hi no
mushiro o kabuserareta
kosumosu no ishikoro no kage
odayaka ni
dokushin o mamori
sono kuse nani mo shinai rashii
mushokusha no mimizu


shōben o shikakeru
sukoshi bakkari surimukarete
shiroku natta yō na hara o
unekunerashi
mimizu wa shojo no yō ni hajirai-odoru
shite yameru to
nagaku nari ugokanaku naru
kagamikonde yubi de ijiritaku naru.
jitto shite shinda no ka to omotte
ijikuriyoru to yowayowashiku haidasu
kagimawasu yō ni shite
namamekashii kuroi mushi ga ippiki
shiri ni tsuite
kogareshitau mono no yō ni ibara ya
na mo shiranai zassō no ne o
hai-oi tobikuguru
sekinin wa uwakimono ni aru.
watashi wa tatte koshi o noshita.

9




I squatted over the privy.
In a crevice a breeze is resting.
I spat.
From its haunch issued a yellow sap.
Not a stir.
Tuckered out, clinging on flat.
Again I spat sputa.
It budged, with great labor.
Falling in with a plop.
Why is this?
Beset by illness, eh?
I waxed pensive.
In sunlight a sunless face exposed.
He seems a breeze full of grief
Having lost his wife
And beset by hyper-acidity
I don’t feel like boiling the rice. the morning



benjo e kagamu
sukiana abu ga tomatte iru
tsubaki o hakikakeru
kiiroi shiru o shiri no hō kara dasu
pun tomo hyun tomo iwanai
hetabari tsuiteiru.
peppe to tsuba o hakikakeru
karōjite miugoki shita.
potori shita e ochita.
naze darō
byōki nan darō ka
hichi-hichi to shita ki ni naru
hi atari no warui kao o shite deru
tada nyōbō o ushinatta bakari de
kanashinde ita abu kamo shirenai.
sankatashō ni nayande iru watashi
meshi o taku ki ni mo narananda asa



10



How good it is you didn’t put that much water in now that the rice is so soft how good you didn’t put any more in I thought indeed there are good things in this ephemeral world

licking the spatula.


mizu o andaki de
irenande yokatta.
konna ni yawarakai
meshi ni natta no ni
ano ue irenande
yokatta.
yo no naka ni wa yoi koto ga
yappashi aru no da

shamoji o neburinagara omou





11




Onanism



It’s always afterward the slaughterer feels the weariness
For every filly two hundred million spermatozoa
Was the nursling
Tightly held between rich swollen dugs
Not asphyxiated when his mother, full of sin,
Waxed aroused watching the figures of copulating horses,
Watching their very horseness?
It is written: “The vagina’s mucous membrane
Is presumably an alkaline,
Though it may soon turn acidic.”
People—
I remember what they had said.
Spermatozoon—
Still they do not hear
Agreeable weariness
Two withered legs
Innumerable men
For what reason do you not call to one another, spermatozoon?
Deep are the sins of women
Sakyamuni’d been in error.
Is it not that each month
But one egg is secreted
I think
One must think
Were there no gradation to the sin
We would have planned in advance no penitence
For the murder or masturbation
Accompanied by that same weariness.



satsurikusha wa itsu mo ato de wa hirō o oboeru
nioku no seichū to ippiki no koma
eiji ga dakishimerarete
uruoi-bukai chibusa
chissoku shitakke
uma no kōbi no guai ga
amari ni uma rashii no o mite
kōfun shita
hahaoya no tsumi darō ka
chitsu no nenmaku wa arukari-sei rashii keredo
sugu sansei ni henka suru rashii
nado to kaite aru.
hitobito yo—
ōku no hitobito no itta no o omoidasu
seichū yo—
da ga mada kikanai
kokoroyoi hirō
naeta ryōashi
ōku no otoko wa
naze seichū yo to yobikakenai no ka
onna wa tsumi-bukashi
oshaka wa machigaete ita.
tamago wa tsuki ni hitotsu shika bunpitsu sarenai rashii
to omowareru to iu de wa nai ka
tsumi ni shinsen ga nakereba
arakajime kōkai shinai yotei de nasareru
jii to satsujin to wa
onaji hirō o tomonau mono da to
omowanakereba naranai to
watashi wa omou.



12


sick with the runs:
palish
thin vermin
floundering
in the night-soil pot
vermin vermin vermin
mushily gushing vermin
deep inside the bowels
it’s owing to this I’ve got the runs
do not bite the white uncooked radish.





geri shite
shiroi
hosoi mushi
kusotsubo no naka
jitabata shite iru.
mushi mushi mushi
gucha waku mushi
onaka no naka
dakara geri shita no ka
shiroi nama daikon kanjiru na.



13


Nothing can be done about her lips being thick
woman
on the street all is closed
the face of the earth frozen over
the sound of clogs echoing out endlessly—
clip-clop the glass door at the barbershop
the white curtains cold pummels the face
the earthen floor at the greengrocery electricity is leaking onto
onions were faintly quivering.
but at my back
a figure wrapped in a manteau
clearly visible with a sideways crawl
a faint shadow
flowed from my feet
and noticed agasted me.
a spider
crouched into a ball
on the empty elbow of an empty chair.
for being so cold-blooded so overfed
her ichthyosic arms coiled
and so are her thighs the woman
by now had sunk into slumber
still the
two shadows are
leaning absently against the electric pole
still, lighting a smoke
my hand trembles
in effort to seize her exhalation
might she have been
an apparition
the young boy
holding in his piss
not knowing
the stars and moon
are already relieved
turns his head upward under the lantern hung from the eaves
under the latten umbrella-light
its interminably apologetic face
wrapping the scene
in a sympathetic hue
but surely there is no reason
for a woman to be in each arm
for how many hours had it been,
my walking alone?
curiously
the two shadows
follow apace unsevered
turning back turning back I
see the furtive
and tardy arrival the standing at attention
of the strangeness of things I try to disrobe,
throwing the manteau over the bridge.




kuchibiru no atsui no wa shikata ga nai deshō
onna
tōri mina shimatte iru.
kōte tsuku jimen
geta no oto karakoro doko made mo hibi-
ite yuku tokoya no garasudo
shiroi maku tsumetai hohouchi
dentō no moreru yaoya no doma
tamanegi ga bidō shite ita.
manto o kabuta zō
haigo ni
hakkiri yokobai ni
usui kage
watashi no ashimoto kara nagarete ita
ki ga tsuite kikkyō shita.
karappo no
isu no hiji-atari ni kumo ga
uzukumatta.
samugari no himan shiteru wari ni
samehada no ryōude mo ryōmomo mo
yojinatte onna
ima shigata neitta ka mo shirenai
futatsu no kage ga
sore na no ni
pokan to shite denchū ni yorikakaru
watashi wa tabako no hi o sutta keredo
fureru te wa
onna no haku iki o tsukamō to suru
moshiya
bōrei de wa nai ka
shōben o koraeteru shōji wa
hoshi to tsuki to ga
gaman shite
hotto shite iru no o shiranai.
atama no ue o aoida
buriki no kasa no nokibi ga
sumanai kao de
soko ni ki no dokusō na iro o
tsutsunde iru
shikashi mochiron ryōwaki ni
onna ga iru hazu ga nai.
nanjikan watashi wa
hitori de aruite ita no ka
fushigi ni
futatsu no kage ga
hanarezu ni tsuite kuru
furikaeri furikaeri
ashioto o shinobasetari
tachitomattari osōte kuru
mono no ke o nugō to shite
hashi no ue kara
watashi wa manto o hori-suteta.


14


Slipping in a portable body warmer
not noticing my underbelly moist with perspiration
and is there no woman here to untie my sash?
when alone
wanting a drink of water
I lick the mouth of a porcelain dog
a single drop
the charred newt’s a love philter
or shall I drink instead of the inkstone’s ink?
Waking up
is tough troubling Stirring
the smutty water
deep inside the bucket
if still swallowable
it may come to boil
Stomach grown wobbly
emptying the ash
sucking down the cigarette its foul taste
ugh oaugh
for a drink of wine:
Muddy
nose mashed to a thousand bits
even a leprous woman’ll do


kairo o ireru to
asebamu shitabara
shiran ma ni
shitaobi no tokeru onna wa nai ka
hitori de ni
mizu ga nomitakute
setomono no inu no kuchi o nameru to
itteki shika nai
imori no kuroyake wa horegusuri
suzuri no bokujū o nonde miyō ka
okiru no ga
taihen taigi na no da yo
kegarewashii
baketsu no mizu yusutte
soko no hō ni
mada nomereba
oyu ga waku ka mo shiren
heta-heta ni natta onaka
hai o tori-kaete
tabako o nomu mazui
ā ā
budōzake ga nomitai
doro-doro no
hana no chigireta
onna naritsupo demo kamawanai



15



The girl at the miso shop too
two or three mats stacked up
has she come down with a cold had she
not been sleeping:
then I considered causes:
Or was it the piping candy-peddler who
a tawdry flag
unfurled overhead
marching along thumping a drum
lured her in:
for the multifold women
being adored by multifold men
is tough
comes with great pains and is triflous too:
They don’t think love to be an affront.
Women:
I am not so sure
putting miso inside the boiling rice
mixing it in such a manner
must be stopped:
see how the froth bubbles up, butsu-butsu,
how its color’s mildly bilious.
But peering in
with downcast eyes into the sweltering steam
my own face appears
mumbling ruddy
vanishing at the point of reflection.
Some time has passed
Since I stopped loving
A certain girl with small feet:
Still I never grow board
Gazing at my own face
Through this rude reflection
At whatever angle
Used to be a man
Who despised the scent of a lady’s feet
But now real-
Ize that rather than wondering whether this had been love
My thoughts bend nostalgically again
Toward the smell of this soup
Which is something I cannot talk about.




misoya no musume mo
daifuton o ni san kasanete
kaze o hiitan ka nete ita
ja nai ka
sono gen’in o kangaetara
arui wa kudaranai hata o
atama ni sashite
taiko o tataite aruku
ameuri ni hikkakawaru koto ka mo shiren
moro-moro no onna wa
moro-moro no otoko ni
koiserarete wa nayamu
muzukashiku oroka ni mo
koiserareru koto ga
budoku da to wa omowanai.
onnatachi yo
watashi wa kō shite
miso o niekakatta kome no naka e
irete kakimazeru koto o yamesō
to wa omowanai
butsu-butsu to awa ga tatsu
sukoshi bakari iyana iro o shite iru keredo
utsumuite yuge ni
hoterashite sashinozoku to
watashi no kao ga mieru
butsu butsu butsu
shunkan ni eijite wa kieru awa da
aru ashi no chiisai onna o
koi shiyamete kara
sude ni yohodo ni naru.
shikashi kō yatte, ikudōri ni mo
utsuru dake ni
watashi wa jibun no kao o nagameru no ni
aki wa shinai
mae kara watashi wa
onna no ashi no nioi ga kirai na otoko datta
koi shiteiru ka dō ka
ima kangaeru yori mo kono miso no nioi ga
natsukashiku mo hanasenai mo-
no da to kizuite iru no da.

16


The zabuton the soba shop
Proprietress fastened to her bottom:
When it gets colder
I’ll append another layer.
When I’m cold my hips hurt—
Am I too then syphilitic?
See how the corners of my eyes smart and burn,
How my back’s become so crooked?
Saying this stooping over the hibachi I
Gautama too
Was probably cat-backed from an early age
A long pipe
Borrowed from the proprietor a single puff


sobaya no okamisan ga
shiri ni shibaritsuketa zabuton
mō sukoshi samuku naru to
mō ichimai no tsukerun de sa.—
—koshi ga hieru to itakute ne
boku mo baidoku na no ka
me no fuchi ga hiri-hiri tadarete
senaka ga konna ni magatteru darō—

hibachi ni kagamikonde itta watashi
shason mo wakai toki kara
nekoze datta yō ni omoete kita
naga-serifu o
teishu ni karite ippuku


17

tofu and what not has come
she shut the door
I just thought she wouldn’t be buying
tofu or nama-age
as I bang the bottom of the clay charcoal stove
the lamp is to turn on
and I’ll
keep reading from
“then again, there are for women the five impediments . . .”
but no light comes
needless to say
not being straight
the switch I flicked on
the light from long ago
was already on
whereupon
it’s just that
as long as I had to boil the water I
guess I thought I wouldn’t be eating.


tōfu ya ga kita
to o shimeta
to-fu mo nama-age mo
kau mai to omotta ni suginai
shichirin no shiri o tataiteru ma ni
dentō ga tsuku darō
soshitara
—mata nyonin no mi ni wa nao goshō ari—
no tsuzuki o yomu
shikashi nakanaka tsukanai
hoka de wa nai ga
massugu ni natte inakatta
suwichi o watashi wa hinetta ni
suginai
suru to dentō ga tokku kara
kite iru
soko de
oyu ga wakanakya
meshi o tabenai ni suginai to
omotta ni suginai

18


Is it to fate that I’m resigned
sucking down this cigarette sprawled on all fours
I struck the match indiffer-
ently lowering it
to the vermin’s back coated in arms.
Strange vermin,
crawled here last night to the bedside
scarpered away
as I scowled at him,
only to reappear this morning
under the desk
does he keep vigil over my sleeping breath
he freezes
before the flame lowered to him
he thinks me something to worry about
his six legs deformed
having survived
the first two or three matches
this neverbeforeseen ver-
min motionless as ever
jū-jū
thinking
the sound of boiling grease
the faint sighing of a fly
again I strike the match
and his foreleg joints his groin resilient
redden blacken
and like cinder disappear.
He collapses supine
fleecily and
without sound.
Indeed it’s to fate that he’s resigned.
How movingly does he
inconvenience my hand and like a venerable
man meet his death.
There are not so many vermin like this in my life.
Softly I place
him in my palm
and consider swallowing him:
like an embryo miscarried
somewhere in seclusion,
I ought
to drown myself
in the rapids of the Tone-gawa


kakugo wa kimete ita no ka
harabai ni tabako o nonde ita
watashi wa nanno kinashi ni su-
tta macchi o
sono monmon no aru senaka e
motte itta.
henna mushi ga
sakuya mo makuramoto e hatte kita
no de niramu to
sugu nige-useta no ni
ima asa ni natte futatabi
tsukue no shita ni arawarete iru
watashi no neiki demo ukagatte ita no ka
matchi no hi o ue kara ateru to
jitto shite iru
nanika shinpaigoto demo aru no ka mo shiren
ni sanbon mo matchi o sutte
aburu to
henna ashi ga roppon aru
ima made mita koto mo na-
i mushi da ga
izen to shite ugokidasanai
jū— jū—
kasuka ni hae no tameiki no yō na
abura no atsuku naru oto ga suru yō ni
omotte nao mo matchi o suru to
sore demo ganbatte iru
zenshi no mata no tsukene ga
akaku natte kuroku natte
keshizumi no yō ni kieta.
soshite fuwa-fuwa to
oto mo shinai ni
aomuke ni taoreta.
kakugo wa kimete ita no kamo shiren
konna ni made ijirashiku
watashi no te o wazurawashite rippana ningen
no yō ni ōjō o togeru mushi wa
watashi no shōgai ni mo kazu ōku wa aru mai.
sotto
tenohira ni nosete
nonde miyō ka
ryūsan suru taiji no yō ni
watashi wa dare ni mo shirasanaide
tonegawa no nagare ni
mi o shizumete mitai
ki ni mo natta


19


Not sure if it’s
smoke or steam
cloaked in the straw rush mat
on the toy boat of bamboo leaves
the sound of a sniveling nose
when with a red kettle scooping water
up float the goods stuffed at bottom
however hard
you stomp on
on sandy grounds
the orange rind
with rubber boots
out gushes a polish
huh, wintry beast
white hare
seeming to revel in the cold
how ugly are the wither-
ing rotting leaves
as if in a forest of stringent onions
and frost-flour
here from my side
even the bubbling icebergs of gruel
ready in a wink
the boat maker’s brat
threw out the steamed
potato skins
how alarming
simmering
how charming this single rabbit
Lord Rabbit
for you
the tips of your boots so dreadfully
bedraggled
the firepan
ugh great coal fire.




komo o kabuseta
kemuri ka hoke ka shiran
sasabune ni
hana o susuru oto
akakama de mizu o sukuu to
sokozumi ga uku
mikan no kawa
gomu kutsu ni
sunaji ni
fumitsukerarete mo
nanbo demo
migaki-shiru ga deru
ō sameta.
chikushō samui to yorokonde iya-
garu shirousagi
karetsu ha ga
koto ni minikui ja nai ka
shimo-oshiroi o tsukete
tsun to shita tamanegi no naka o
kochira de wa
okayu no awa no hyōzan ga
matataku ma ni dekiagaru
fune daiku no gaki ga
mushikashi-tate no
imo no kawa o hotta
abunai
jū—
kawaii ippiki shika inai
usagikō
omae ni totte wa
monosugoi kutsusaki
dainashi ni nariyotta
jūnō
ō sumibi

20


“Sure the cockscomb
is acting like a knave—
I know it can be a bit knavish—
but I bet you didn’t know
the balsamine
had been swindling us,”
the green-bottle fly whispered
knavishly to the cat.
To the very corner
of the garden of that very farm house
autumn came
and when the mother-in-law, a cosmos,
in a fit of conniption
gives to the pregnant chrysanthemum
the stink eye
and with a penchant for such pedantry
the soft down of desire
clings to
a sky a China-pink.


keitō wa akutōburu
no da to itte
akutōburu dake dakedo
hōsenka ga
sagi o shite iru no o
kimi wa shiranai darō
ginbae ga neko ni akutōbutte
sasayaita koto ga atta.
onaji hyakushōya no
niwa sumi ni mo aki ga kite
shūtome no kosumosu wa
hisuteri- ga okoru to
mimochi no kiku o
itai me ni awasu
nado to shōjikibutte
jōnetsu no nikoge ga
sekichiku-iro no kūki to
hittsuki-atta.


21


The delight in driving into it a gimlet,
With emphasis,
With fingers bent slightly back,
With hands clasped together,
Twisting into string the stationary,
Bundling it into a single sheaf, and sealing it,
I shall hang it,
The letter my woman sent,
Out for later,
Before the eaves the rain can’t reach,
Hanging it out to dry,
That before long,
Once fully dry,
I can cut it like fine long hair,
And roast it in the fire,
And when the New Year comes,
Put it in the ozōni,
And eat it.


kiri momu ureshisa
te o awashite
chikara o komete
yubi o sorashite
koyori o sashite
onna no yokoshita tegami o
issoku ni shite tojite
watashi wa
amadare no kakaranai nokisaki e
tsurushite okō
yagate
hosete
yoku kawaitara
kami no ke no yō ni hosonagaku kitte
hi ni abutte
oshōgatsu ga kitara
ozōni no naka e irete
tabeyō



22

Z
was not in.
his wife gave me a mandarin.
it was about to snow.
a man
the young woman hybridous in tow
cried into the streets,
let us heed the will of the Lord.
returning home along the river
I stopped by the outhouse
where—through a loose board?—
blew from below
a biting breeze.

I bit through the sleeve-grass
into the orange’s pulp.
let us heed the will of God.
my teeth are set on edge.



Z wa fuzai deshita
saikun ga
mikan o kuremashita.
yuki ga furisō deshita.
konketsuji rashii
musume o tsureta otoko ga
—kami no ishi o miyo—
tōri de sakende imashita
kaette
kawaya e hairu to
ita ga hazureta no ka
tsumetai kaze ga
shita kara fukimashita
tamotogusa to issho ni
mikan no kawa o kande mimashita
—kami no ishi o mimashō
ha ga ukimashita


23

The degraded painter Mister Z
Despises the spring fall and future
And over the last twenty years
His mother has worn out her bat-
Brolly:
“What is sandwiched between its shaft,
You see, is a pearl.
No matter what a thing is,
There is nothing that doesn’t resemble a meal.”

“Surely we’re not to eat the vainglorious hog;
But will we, mother, be able to wipe our sweat
Though the rags are yet to dry?
Should we naught the spring and fall,
What’ll be left to draw
With these benumbed hands?
I am not a sharp
Perceiving dog.
I can’t make out
The future’s fragrance.”



haru to aki to mirai o nikumu
rakuhaku gaka
K no haha ga
nijūnen mochifurushita
kōmori
kono e no toko ni hasamete aru no ga
shinjū nan desu yo—
donna mono demo
tabemono ni mienai koto wa arimasen

demo kyoeishin no tsuyoi buta wa
sore o kuwanai deshō
okāsan
nuno ga kawakanai no ni
ase ga fukemashō ka
haru to aki o naku shite mo
kajikanda te de
nani ga kakemashō
eibin na
inu de nai watashi ni
mirai no nioi o
kagu koto wa dekimasen

24




Dandelions were blooming.
Yellowish.
The rickshawman trotted over.
Carrying away somebody’s lover.
Steam trains absent and so are the electric trains.
A cardiac arrest.
This one-street town
With not
That much dust.
Kneeling dejected,
He’s dead already isn’t he.
Poor bastard.
Hauled in
To the first confectionary shop.
Poor mister
Shot himself in the stomach.
Having lost the bet
And soon were heard
Rumors of my return.
Can the rickshaw tread reposefully along?
Is what I say unreasonable?
Can death be avoided if we’d just stay calm?
Dandelions fond of
Yellowish tubercle bacillus.
Will my lungs ever improve



tanpopo ga saite ita
kinapoi
kurumaya ga hashitte itta
dareka no koijin o nosete
kisha mo densha mo nai
shinzō mahi
hokori ga
gyōsan mo tatanai
issuji machi
gakuri sune o tsuite
shinde shimattan ja nai ka
kawaisō ni
tottsuki no dagashiya ni
katsugi konda
shujin ga
teppōbara shitan da
bakuchi ni makete
ma mo naku
watashi no kaetta uwasa ga tatta
kurumaya ga
ochitsuite hashireru darō ka
watashi no iu no wa muri darō ka
ochitsuite ireba shinanai no ka
kinapoi
kekkakukin o suku tanpopo
watashi no hai ga ieru darō ka


26











once dead
becoming the fool
rather than being the fool
smacks of the niggardly





shinde kara
baka yori mo
nao baka ni naru no ka
rinshoku kusai



27



The deranged woman around forty
fasting deaf coy corpulent
was conversing with cows grown thick under the teahouse
eaves. Mother, who’d passed away


kurutta yonjū bakari no onna
danjiki tsunbo hazukashigari himan
chadō no noki ni shigeide aru ushi to hanashite
ita. inaku natta haha


28

The socialist to the prosecutor
said in a low voice
You feel quite nice when you board the plane
but the dog still got away.

now settle down and tell me
is it really something
like the rarefied air
this love

an indulgence.
the gamut of things
seen as one in a cerulean hue
to whom among us hast thou given such eyes

there is but one tongue
gnawing off that tongue
not gnawing off that tongue are the two things humans can do.
tell me eremite

is there a suicide
ending not in death
would Sakyamuni or Christ revived
be only meeker than the dead

is the oft-said word gramercy
any different than things of conscience
again I was thinking would this have been the loincloth
of a indigene? and you

aren’t you worried about your family
sure they’re something to worry about
for they too are sometimes my possessions

and is it not a paltry thing
your ego
a kind of vestment
you ought to remove

rage against it with resolve
for courage will be needed to course in an instant
all of forever
and then shall ease the throbbing in the head.


shakai shugisha ga kensatsu ni
hikōki ni noru to guai ga yoi yo—
hikui koe de ittan da ga
inu ga nigete shimatta.

ochitsuite itte kudasai
hontō ni kihaku na
kūki no yō na mono na no desu ka
sono ai to iu no wa

zeitaku da
arayuru mono ga hitotsu ni
sorairo ni mieru nante
sonna me o dareka ni yatta kai kamisama

shita wa hitotsu shika nai
shita o kamikiru koto to kamikirana-
i koto to ningen no suru koto wa futatsu shika nai.
kinyoku shugisha yo

shinda koto ni naranai jisatsu ga
arō ka
shaka ya kirisuto ga ikikaette mo
shinda ningen yori wa yowai jarō

arigatai iu kotoba to ryōshin toka
iu mono to wa chigaun desu ka
watashi wa mata dojin no koshimaki no koto ka
to omotte imashita.

kimi wa kazoku no koto o shinpai shinai no ka
sore wa shinpai suru sa
tokidoki wa
boku no shoyūmono dakara

sukoshi chisai ja nai ka
kimi no jiga wa
sonna chokki mitaina mono wa
nugitamae

omoikiri abaretamae
eigō o isshunkan ni hashiru yūki ga
nakucha
sō suru to atama no itai no ga ieru.

Takahashi Shinkichi: An Annotated Bibliography


The following sources are essential to anyone doing a serious and thorough study of the 20th-century poet Takahashi Shinkichi. Although the main purpose of this bibliography is to direct readers to further Takahashi scholarship (including anthologies that present Takahashi’s poems with some biographic or critical supplementary material), I have also included in the second part a short list of his original works, the most important being the complete anthology 高橋新吉全集, in order to help guide the researcher to other materials. In short, the first list is comprehensive; the second is selective. (Note: all Japanese sources were published in Tokyo unless otherwise indicated.)

I. Works about Takahashi and Anthologies in which works of Takahashi appear

Bownas, Geoffrey, and Anthony Thwaite, eds. and trans. The Penguin Book of Japanese
Verse. Baltimore: Penguin, 1964. A basic introduction to Japanese poetry, surveying
works from pre-modern up to mid-20th century. The book is useful as an introduction to
the subject, but not beyond that. It would be more useful if it had footnotes or more
detailed bibliographic information.

Ellis, Toshiko. “The Japanese Avant-Garde of the 1920s: The Poetic Struggle with the
Dilemma of the Modern.” Poetics Today 20:4 (2000), 723-741. An essay on Takahashi
and other experimental poets of the 1920s, focusing on Takahashi’s early dada works.

Funaki Masuo 船木満洲夫 and Takahashi Shinkichi 高橋新吉. Yoshida Issui ron 吉田一穂論.
Hōbunkan Shuppan, 1992. Criticism of modern poetry. Includes one article in English
(pp. 86-106), Woman in the Tide, by Takahashi Shinkichi.

Hirai Ken 平居謙. Takahashi Shinkichi kenkyū 高橋新吉研究. Shichōsha, 1993. Invaluable
source to the student of Takahashi. Unfortunately, this book is located in only five
libraries worldwide, all of which are in Japan. It can, however, be ordered from various
Japanese bookstores on the Internet for approximately ¥3400. Includes excellent
biographical and contextual information as well as thorough analyses of Takahashi’s
complete body of work.

Kaneda Hiroshi 金田弘. Takahashi Shinkichi gookunen no tabi 高橋新吉五億年の旅.
Shunjūsha, 1998. A study of Takahashi’s poetics and relationship with Zen.
Includes bibliographical references.

Ko, Won. Buddhist Elements in Dada: A Comparison of Tristan Tzara, Takahashi Shinkichi,
and Their Fellow Poets. New York: New York University Press. A comparative study
of dada artists Takahashi Shinkichi and Tristan Tzara. Essential in understanding
Takahashi’s earlier works within the context of European dada. Unfortunately, it is the
only study in English of Takahashi’s early dada poems.

Kōno, Ichirō, and Rikutarō Fukuda, eds. and trans. An Anthology of Modern JapanesePoetry.
Kenkyūsha, 1957. Though it includes several poems from each of the100 modern poets
included, the work is quite out of date—its translations are often loose approximations,
the introduction is condescending (“There is no denying the fact that as a poetic language
Japanese is less appropriate than the Indo-European languages”), and the most important
20th-century poets are given the same amount of space as less significant poets. Included
are a handful of poems by Takahashi.

Kurokawa Naihei 黒川内平. Gendai sakka no shinri shindan to atarashii sakkaron:
sakka to mensetsushite Rorushahha-hō niyoru shinri shindansho happyō 現代
作家の心理診断と新しい作家論: 作家と面接してロールツャッハ法によ
る心理診断書発表. Shibundō, 1962. Psychological diagnoses of contemporary
Japanese writers, including Takahashi.

Nakano Shigeharu 中野重治, Ono Tōsaburō 小野十三郎, Takahashi Shinkichi 高橋新
吉, Yamanoguchi Baku 山之口獏. Nakano Shigeharu, Ono Tōsaburō, Takahashi
Shinkichi, Yamanokuchi Baku shū 中野重治, 小野十三郎, 高橋新吉, 山之口
獏集. Chūō Kōronsha, 1969. A compilation of four poets’ modern Japanese
verse. Includes biographical references.

Ninomiya, Takamichi, and D. J. Enright, trans. The Poetry of Living Japan: AnAnthology. New
York: Grove Press, 1957. Another early anthology of modern Japanese poetry in which
several poems of Takahashi appear. Has problems similar to those found in Kōno and
Fukuda’s anthology.

Ōhashi Kichinosuke 大橋吉之輔. Anderusun to sannin no Nihonjin: Shōwa shonen no
Amerika bungaku アンデルスンと三人の日本人: 昭和初年のアメリカ文学.
Kenkyūsha, 1984. A study of Sherwood Anderson (1876-1941) and his influence
on Takahashi Shinkichi and two other 20th-century Japanese writers.

Shiffert, Edith Marcombe, and Yūki Sawa, trans. and comps. Anthology of Modern Japanese
Poetry. Rutland, VT and Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle, 1972. Divided into three sections,
“Free Verse,” “Tanka,” and “Haiku,” this book ambitiously tries to cover the broader
span of 20th-century Japanese poetry, featuring works from 49 poets. Unfortunately, only
about 3 to 5 poems are allotted to each poet, making this book more of an introduction to
the general subject than to each poet. Translations are enjoyable and true to their
originals. Also includes brief information about authors and a short bibliography.

Ueda, Makoto. Modern Japanese Poets and the Nature of Literature. Stanford: Stanford
University Press, 1983. A useful study of 8 preeminent 20th-century poets and their art.
The last 61 pages specifically address Takahashi, making the book one of the few English
materials that critically examine his work.


Uzaki Hiroshi 鵜崎拓. Takahashi Shinkichi ron 高橋新吉論. Kawade Shobō Shinsha,
1987. One of the rare, critically thorough studies of Takahashi’s theory and
practice of poetry. Available for ¥4500.


II. Selected Works by Takahashi Shinkichi, in original and in translation

Stryk, Lucien, and Takashi Ikemoto, eds. and trans. Afterimages: Zen Poems of Shinkichi
Takahashi. Garden City, N. Y.: Anchor Books, 1972. Stryk’s first publication of
Takahashi poems. Triumph of the Sparrow is this work’s continuation. Includes a
foreword by the author, and an introduction from each of the translators.

______. The Penguin Book of Zen Poetry. London: Allen Lane, Penguin Books Ltd. 1988.
Covers a wide range of material, from ancient to modern, from both the Chinese and
Japanese traditions of Zen. Includes a good introduction about the Zen aesthetic, which
emphasizes suggestion over depiction.

______. Triumph of the Sparrow: Zen Poems of Shinkichi Takahashi. Urbana:
University of Illinois Press, 1986. An expanded reprinting of Stryk’s first
collection of Takahashi Shinkichi translations, Afterimages: Zen Poems of
Shinkichi Takahashi. This renamed edition includes 55 new translations and an
interview with Takahashi Shinkichi taken just before his death.

______. Zen: Poems, Prayers, Sermons, Anecdotes, Interviews, Selected and Translated
by Lucien Stryk and Takashi Ikemoto. Garden City: Doubleday, 1965.
Includes Stryk’s translations of Takahashi poems, many of which are
approximations and are severely edited. Helpful, since few other English
translations of Takahashi’s poetry have been done.

Stryk, Lucien, and Takahashi Shinkichi. Zen Poems: LP Sound Recording: Poetry.
Excerpts read by the author and translator. LP. New York: Folkway Records,
1980. Very little, if any, information about this record exists, but it can be ordered.

Takahashi Shinkichi 高橋新吉. Zen to bungaku 禅と文学. Hōbunkan, 1970. A
collection of engaging but by no means scholarly essays written by Takahashi
over the years on a variety of subjects. Despite the title, many of the
impressionistic essays are about things entirely unrelated to Zen. Also includes
auto-biographical writings.

______. Takahashi Shinkichi zenshū 高橋新吉全集. 4 vols. Seidosha, 1982. This “complete
works” of Takahashi includes his poetry, criticism, fiction, and other miscellaneous
writings, and is found in five libraries worldwide. The collections Makuwauri shishū and
Dadaisuto Shinkichi no shi are included in the first volume, which has complete works of
Takahashi poetry. Available for ¥60,000.

______. Zen ni asobu 禅にあそぶ. Rippū Shobō, 1977. (Unable to examine. Available for
¥1500.)

______. Teihon: Takahashi Shinkichi zenshishū 定本 高橋新吉全詩集. Rippu shobō, 1972.
Includes in full Takahashi’s 1923 collection Dadaisuto Shinkichi no shi, as well as an
afterword by Takahashi written in 1972, and a critical analysis of his poetry.

Other Works Consulted

Anderson, Wallace L., and Norman C. Stageberg, eds. Introductory Readings on
Language. NY: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1962.

Apollinaire, Guillaume. Alcools: Translated by Donald Revell. Hanover, N.H.:
Wesleyan University Press, 1995.

Apollinaire, Guillaume. The Poet Assassinated: Translated by Matthew Josephson.
Cambridge: Exact Change, 2000.

Balakian, Anna. André Breton: Magus of Surrealism. New York: Oxford University
Press, 1971.

Breton, André, et al. The Automatic Message, The Magnetic Fields, The Immaculate
Conception: Anti-classics of Surrealism. London: Atlas Press, 1997.

Breton, André. Nadja. New York: Grove Press, 1960.

Breton, André. Selected Poems: Translated by Kenneth White. London: Jonathan Cape,
1969.

Caws, Mary Ann. The Poetry of Dada and Surrealism: Aragon, Breton, Tzara, Eluard
& Desnos. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1970.

Eluard, Paul. Selected Writings: With English Translations by Lloyd Alexander.
Norfolk: New Directions, 1951.

Grossman, Manuel L. Dada: Paradox, Mystification, and Ambiguity in European
Literature. New York: Pegasus, 1971.

Japanese-English Buddhist Dictionary. Tokyo: Daitō shuppansha, 1979.

Keene, Donald. A History of Japanese Literature: Dawn to the West. Volume 4:
Japanese Literature of the Modern Era, Poetry, Drama, Criticism, With a New
Preface By the Author. New York: Columbia University Press, 1999.

Macey, David. The Penguin Dictionary of Critical Theory. New York: Penguin Books,
2000.

Makino, Yasuko, and Masaei Saito. A Student Guide to Japanese Sources in the
Humanities. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 1994.

Morohashi, Tetsuji 諸橋哲二. Daikanwa jiten 大漢和辞典. 13 volumes. Taishūkan
shoten, 1966-1968.

Motherwell, Robert, and Jack D. Flam, eds. The Dada Painters and Poets: The
Documents of Twentieth Century Art. Boston: Wittenborn, Schultz, Inc., 1981.

Nakamura Hajime 中村元, ed. Shinbukkyō jiten 新仏教辞典. Tokyo: Seishin shobō,
1980.

Oxford English Dictionary [electronic resource]. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Sato, Hiroaki, and Burton Watson, eds. and trans. From the Country of Eight Islands:
An Anthology of Japanese Poetry. New York: Anchor Press, 1981.

Schulte, Rainer, and John Biguenet, eds. Theories of Translation: An Anthology of
Essays from Dryden to Derrida. Chigago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.

Sheppard, Richard, ed. New Studies in Dada: Essays and Documents. Driffield, UK:
Hutton Press, 1981.

Watanabe, Toshirō, Edmund R. Skrzypczak and Paul Snowden, editors in chief.
Kenkyusha’s New Japanese-English Dictionary. Tokyo: Kenkyūsha, 2003.

Young, Alan. Dada and After: Extremist Modernism and English Literature. New
Jersey: Humanities Press 1981.