Thursday, September 6, 2007

Tsubouchi Shoyo

ヨーロッパ19世紀のレアリズムを無理矢理に日本に移入せんとしたため、近代文学史を大きく変えた坪内逍遥のことなんですけれども、彼の『小説神髄』について、僕が批判的な立場から以下のリンクにあるエッセーを書いたので、興味ある方々是非見てください。まだ途中ですけれども、今までのところを載せます。今のところ、英語版しかありませんので、日本語で読んでみたいなら、和訳を完了するまでお待ちください。Click here for article.

3 comments:

Anonymous said...

You mention Ikku Jippensha's Shanks' mare : being a translation of the Tokaido volumes of Hizakurige, Japan's great comic novel of travel & ribaldry / by Ikku Jippensha (1765-1831) ; faithfully rendered into English by Thomas Satchell. I think I remember that work having several notable examples of involution. Por ejemplo, this one:
"'I'm Jippensha Ikku,' said Yaji . . . I came on this journey especially to write Hizakurige."

Thanks for the essay,
Jill

Anonymous said...

It might also be interesting to discuss the reaction against Shoyo's realism (e.g., Ozaki Kouyou, Izumi Kyoka, Twine 353; Kouyou and Ken'yuusha group, Takayama Chogyuu: see Tomasi 342-3)

Also, discuss how it was received: shaseibun; sexuality of the Naturalists; Masaoka Shiki influenced, Tomasi, "Quest for a New Written Language," 341; Naturalists Tayama Katai, Hasegawa Tenkei, Katagami Tengen (Tomasi, 342)

Finally, here are some additional source notes that might come in handy. Cheers and keep up the good work!

Taguchi Ukichi (1855-1905) Nihon kaika shoushi 『日本開花小史』
坪内逍遥、『小説神髄』
Tsubouchi Shoyo, "The Essence of the Novel," translated by Nanette Twine
"The Genbunitchi Movement" JSTOR article by Nanette Twine
Massimiliano Tomasi "Quest for a New Written Language" JSTOR
Fowler's "Rhetoric of Confession,"
Cohn's "Studies in the Comic Spirit in Modern Japanese Fiction,"
Ryan's "The Development of Realism in the Fiction of Tsubouchi Shoyo,"
"The Failure of Realism: Felix Holt," JSTOR
Sex and the Floating World: Erotic Images in Japan, 1700-1820 (t. screech),
Gregory Pflugfelder's Cartographies of Desire: Male-Male Sexuality in Japanese Discourse, 1600-1950. "The Survival of Tokugawa Fiction in the Meiji Period"
JSTOR article by P.F. Kornicki The reform of fiction in Meiji Japan / Peter F. Kornicki.
Jay Rubin's book "injurious to public morals";
Fenollosa;
and John Morley ("Essay on George Eliot"); Kant; Fowler's Rhetoric of Confession ("ideology of realism");
W.G. Aston, who in his A History of Japanese Literature (1899)
“On the Difficulty of Japanese Translation,” by Roy Andrew Miller

-Bartlett

Anonymous said...

Some final source notes, just in case you were interested.
-Tracy



1 The text used here is J.H. Bernard’s 1931 translation (second edition), included in The theory of criticism from Plato to the present : a reader / edited and introduced by Raman Selden. Imprint London ; New York : Longman, 1988. For an outline of Kant’s argument, see http://www.uri.edu/personal/szunjic/philos/critjudg.htm

2 These two definitions are taken from http://www.uri.edu/personal/szunjic/philos/critjudg.htm

3 For Meredith’s full translation, see http://etext.library.adelaide.edu.au/k/kant/immanuel/k16j/

4 Unable to “prove” man’s freedom in his other works, Kant here suggests that, since man is free in his judgment of the Beautiful and the Sublime (both of which refer to some noumenal order), he is indeed endowed with free will, and therefore subject to moral law.

5 For translation, see Motoori Noringaga's criticism of the Genji monogatari : a study of the background and critical content of his Genji monogatari tama no ogushi / by Thomas James Harper. See “The Intentions of the Novel” section.

6 For more, see Also see William Temple's Analysis of Sir Philip Sidney's Apology for poetry : an edition and translation / John Webster. Imprint Binghamton, N.Y. : Medieval & Renaissance Texts & Studies, Center for Medieval & Early Renaissance Studies, 1984.


7 Also see Nietzsche’s Birth of Tragedy.

8 His introduction is provided in The theory of criticism from Plato to the present : a reader.

9 For the full essay, see Van Nostrand, Albert D., ed. Title Literary criticism in America. Imprint New York, Liberal Arts Press [1957].


10 See Time magazine article: http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,809934,00.html

11 From Rousseau’s Reveries of the solitary walker / Jean-Jacques Rousseau ; translated with an introd. by Peter France. Imprint Harmondsworth, Eng. : Penguin Books, 1979.

12 An exception to this might be his Sasame yuki.

13 From The Monkey's straw raincoat and other poetry of the Basho school / introduced and translated by Earl Miner and Hiroko Odagiri. Imprint Princeton, N.J. : Princeton University Press, c1981

14 From Gerstle’s “Circles of Fantasy: Convention in the Plays of Chikamatsu,”

15 see On the art of no drama : the major treatises of Zeami / translated by J. Thomas Rimer, Yamazaki Masakazu. Imprint Princeton, N.J. : Princeton University Press, c1984.

16 from Studies on Japanese Culture, vol II, 469-79

17 Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies (1977). The collective nuisance, p. 137-157.


18 Taken from Labyrinths : selected stories and other writings / Jorge Luis Borges ; edited by Donald A. Yates and James E. Irby ; preface by Andre Maurois.

19 Taken from Labyrinths : selected stories and other writings / Jorge Luis Borges ; edited by Donald A. Yates and James E. Irby ; preface by Andre Maurois.

20 From Understanding poetry / Cleanth Brooks, Robert Penn Warren. Imprint New York : Holt, Rinehart and Winston, c1976.

21 From Articulate images : the sister arts from Hogarth to Tennyson / edited by Richard Wendorf. Imprint Minneapolis : University of Minnesota Press, c1983.

22 The work , 『江戸生艶気樺焼』by 山東京伝 (1761-1816), is translated as “Grilled and Basted Edo-Born Playboy” in Early modern Japanese literature : an anthology, 1600-1900, ed. Haruo Shirane. 2002.

23 To demonstrate his point on the moral assumptions of mimesis as practiced, Miner compares Edo Mumare to William Hogarth’s famed series of engravings, A Rake’s Progress (85-6).


24 Miner points out that Aristotle’s advocacy in Poetics of exact representation is in exact contrast to Chikamatsu’s condemnation of it in Naniwa miyage (81-82). Ovid, too, “would have been astounded” at Chikamatsu’s claim (82). But Zeami, in his Fūshikaden, seems to agree with Chikamatsu: “merely hobbling along like an old man gave no artistic gave no artistic [rendering] of old age for the theater” (82). As for the frequent mirror image in Heian literature, Miner notes that this is different from the mimetic mirror of the West: “Japan aesthetics has no use for the image of ‘the mirror of nature’ to designate a mimetic process” (94-5). The mirrors of the rekishi monogatari Ōkagami (11th century) and of Kokinshū no Tōkagami (1787) are “literary mirrors that do not reflect in the mimetic way, or anti-mimetic way” (95).



25 Miner notes that Buddhist epistemology offers an understanding of the self and its relation to the world different from that most Western thought— “nothing can be said to have discrete influence” and “all existence is posited upon relation, on dependence and interdependence” (94). But the extent to which these notions influenced Edo-period literature is debatable.

26 From Early modern Japanese literature : an anthology, 1600-1900, ed. Haruo Shirane. 2002.

27 From Madame Bovary : Backgrounds and sources; essays in criticism / Gustave Flaubert ; edited with a substantially new translation by Paul de Man. Imprint New York : W.W. Norton, c1965

28 From Lectures on literature / Vladimir Nabokov ; edited by Fredson Bowers ; introduction by John Updyke. Imprint [London] : Picador, 1983, c1980.



30 From The Great Cat Massacre and other Episodes in French Cultural History, by Robert Darnton


31 The full title of the poem is Lines Composed a Few Miles above Tintern Abbey, on Revisiting the Banks of the Wye during a Tour, July 13, 1798. The poem was published in the Lyrical Ballads (1798).

32 An interesting subject might be to compare this Romantic notion of the hermit to the Japanese notion of tonsei and yamabushi.


33 I should point out that, according to some critics, the abbey is of important historical and political significance, and therefore plays a necessary role in the poem. In this paper, for lack of time, I shall not discuss the historical associations of Tintern Abbey.