Friday, January 30, 2009

Letter to Mom (Or, Crash Course in Modern and Postmodern Literary Theory: The Most Comprehensive Hyperlinked Glossary Ever Assembled)-- Lesson 3


Cluster 7: Psychoanalytic Criticism

Mother,

OK, in this last installment we’ll be covering clusters 7, 8 and 9. Just in case you'd like to review, here are the first and second installments. I’m in a hurry, so we’re going to have to make this quick.

Cluster 7 is concerned with Freudian literary criticism. Key terms include displacement, projection and introjections, the uncanny, the unconscious, psychological repression, Oedipus complex, condensation, sublimation, and the arche. I'm sure you're familiar with some of these terms from your New Age psychobabble self-help books. Just be careful not to confuse Freudianism with the more popular "vulgar Freudianism."

And if we’re going to talk about Freud, we’ll also have to spend some time on Carl Jung and his analytical psychology and notion of the collective unconscious. Canadian literary critic Northrop Frye borrowed Jung’s collective unconscious and applied it to literature, producing what is now known as archetypal literary criticism. Some key terms of his include the four mythoi (romance, tragedy, comedy and satire) and menippean satire.

Next is Michel Foucault. Key terms: sexuality, archaeology of knowledge, panopticon, episteme (2), and transgression strategy. Again, some of the links might not exactly match up, so you may have to do a little sifting.

Thanks to Slavok Zizek, French psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan has been revived in recent years. His key ideas: structure of the psyche (the real, the imaginary, the symbolic), imaginary/symbolic/real, other, name-of-the-father, the gaze, and desire/lack. Also see Slavok Zizek’s “How to Read Lacan,” which is available on this most excellent site.

There’s also Bulgarian-French philosopher and critic Julia Kristeva, whose key terms include: the semiotic and symbolic, phenotext and genotext, and abjection. You’ll also want to look into Melanie Klein’s object-relations theory.
Cluster 8: Postmodernism

Now on to postmodernism. Because postmodernism is more of a historical condition than a particular theory of philosophy or art, I’ve included only two names in this cluster. The first is late French philosopher Jean-Francois Lyotard, who famously said postmodernism is characterized by a general skepticism toward metanarratives and totalization. The other is American Marxist Frederic Jameson. Here’s a summary of his works; some of his key terms: late capitalism, the political unconscious, the postmodern condition, pastiche, strategy of containment, and ideologeme.
Cluster 9: Feminism and Gender

Finally, there’s feminism and gender. I think H. Bloom refers to this as the "school of resentment." Some of their key terms: sexism, misogyny, homophobia, androgyny, and phallogocentrism. Feminist and gender criticism has its roots in Engels, who was among the first to examine Europe’s patriarchal system. You’ll also want to look at these key terms: patriarchy in feminism, matriarchy, androcentric/gynocentric, and phallocentrism.

Also familiarize yourself with the Bloomsbury group, the Fabian Society (which included E.M. Forster and Virginia Woolf), and Kate Millet and the radical feminists. You’ll also want to look into Elain Showalter’s notion of gynocriticism, and critic Toril Moi, and Linda Hutcheon’s narcissistic narrative.

Oh, and don't leave out A.D. Nutall’s notion of transparent criticism (eg, Aristotle's formal descriptions) vs. opaque criticism (eg, Derrida's criticism), and Judith Butler on performativity. And while you’re on Butler you might want to take a look at her writings on Zionism.

Also look at Belgian feminist Luce Irigaray and her logic of the same, and Ecriture feminine. Also: Judith Fetterley's notion of resistant reading, and interrogation.

Lastly, we’ll finish this cluster off with a little gay and lesbian criticism, looking at American critic Eve Sedgwick and her notions of homosocial and homodiegetic storytelling.

This concludes our three-part lesson, Mother. You can go back to your New Age self-help books now, hopefully with a new perspective. To review, here are Lessons 1 and 2.
Your dutiful son,
Ryan

10 comments:

Jarvis32 said...
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Jarvis32 said...
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Jarvis32 said...

What about Cluster 10? In your January 21st post, you promised to give us a Cluster 10 dealing with "Miscellany." Do you renege?

-Jarvis32

Anonymous said...
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Ian Hogarth said...

"Lastly, we’ll finish this cluster off with a little gay and lesbian criticism . . ."

How 'bout I finish you off with a little gay and lesbian criticism!

Anonymous said...

What the hell are you talking about? Mother

Anonymous said...

Here's the final Cluster 10. It was leaked to me by an unnamed source.

Cluster 10: Miscellany

“Faction” or non-fiction novel (eg, Capote’s In Cold Blood)

Nouveau roman, Robbe-Grillet
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nouveau_roman

Frederick Crews: critical of critical trends, “new Americanism”
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederick_Crews

Ernst Robert Curtius: topos, commonplaces, metaphors we come back to
http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/articles/pages/5856/Topos.html

Parody, travesty (ie, M.H. Abrams’s burlesque)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burlesque_(literary)

Kenneth Burke: dramatism
Utopia, dystopia:

Picaresque novel:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Picaresque_novel

Figurative language: alliteration, tonzetsuho, abridgement, exaggeration, kanjoho, metaphor, metonymy, synecdoche, simile, anthropomorphism, irony, antithesis.

Umberto Eco: open work/closed work,
http://www.hup.harvard.edu/catalog/ECOOPE.html

Fabliau
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fabliau

Revenge tragedy: Spanish Tragedy and Hamlet, Jew of Malta
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Revenge_tragedy
http://cla.calpoly.edu/~dschwart/engl339/revenge.html

Gustav Freytag: Freytag’s pyramid (dramatic structure)
http://oak.cats.ohiou.edu/~hartleyg/250/freytag.html

Flat/Round Character (E.M. Forster):
http://narrative.georgetown.edu/wiki/index.php/Flat_character
http://narrative.georgetown.edu/wiki/index.php/Round_character

Dynamic/Static Character (

Claude Levi-Strauss: bricolage, myth
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bricolage
http://www.colorado.edu/English/courses/ENGL2012Klages/levi-strauss.html

Analytic philosophy:
http://www.iep.utm.edu/a/analytic.htm

Matthew Arnold: Hebraism and Hellenism
http://www.victorianweb.org/authors/arnold/writings/4.html

Hermenetic/Hermetism
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hermeticism

Subject/subjectivity: position
http://www.marxists.org/glossary/terms/s/u.htm

Textual Criticism (eg, biblical scholars)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Textual_criticism

Minor literature (eg Kafka): Deleuze and Guattari
http://www.upress.umn.edu/Books/D/deleuze_kafka.html

Magic realism (art critic Franz Roh’s term): Gabriel Garcia Marquez, J.L. Borges, Bulgakov, Rushdie (Midnight’s Children), Grass, Yoshimoto Banana, Toni Morrison
http://www.english.emory.edu/Bahri/MagicalRealism.html

Mise-en-abyme (eg, “play within a play,” “Chinese box narrative”)): Andre Gide (complex metafiction-esque romans and simple recit), Italo Calvino, Shakespeare, etc.
http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=729

Futurism: Filippo Marinetti, Vladimir Mayakovsky, Guillaume Apollinaire
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Futurism_(art)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Filippo_Tommaso_Marinetti
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vladimir_Mayakovsky

Proust: involuntary memory (also Benjamin, Bergson)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Involuntary_memory

Metatheatre (Pirandello, Shakespeare, Beckett):
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metatheatre

Metafiction (Vonnegut, Sterne’s Tristram Shandy, Chaucer, Fowles, D. Lessing, Cervantes, Gide’s The Counterfeiters, :
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metafiction

Hayden White: emplotment, historiography, metahistory, four poetic structures used by historian (metaphor, synecdoche, metonymy, irony)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hayden_White
http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/emplotment
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Historiography
http://users.ox.ac.uk/~spet0201/lectures/histlink/whiteho.html
http://www.lehigh.edu/~ineng/syll/syll-metahistory.html

Aporia:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aporia

Utopia/dystopia:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Utopia

reading position:

re-reading:
motif, leitmotif: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leitmotif

Existentialism
http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/existentialism/

Marshall McLuhan: hot and cool media, literacy, medium is the message, global village,
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marshall_McLuhan
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_medium_is_the_message
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_medium_is_the_message

Liminality: Arnold van Gennep
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liminality
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arnold_van_Gennep

marginality:

historical novel (war and peace, hunchback of notre dame, tale of two cities):
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Historical_novel

(roman-) feuilleton (balzac, sand, dumas, dickens, trollope, pynchon):
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Feuilleton

robinsonade:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robinsonade

romance (quest literature from medieval times to present):
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romance_(genre)

roman noir (black novel), film noir:

Anagoge (spiritual interpretation; one of four ways to interpret scripture, others: literal, allegorical, moral): F. Jameson
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anagoge

anaphora (emphasis of words/phrases by repetition):
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anaphora

Annales School (historiography)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Annales_School

alazon and eiron
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alazon

Walter Benjamin: allegory
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allegory

angry young men:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angry_young_men

Ubi sunt (where now?)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ubi_sunt

E.D. Hirsch: meaning (intended by author)/significance (perceived by critic or reader); cultural literacy
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E.D._Hirsch
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cultural_literacy

well-made play (19th c. French form later used and parodied by Ibsen, Wilde, etc):
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Well-made_play

periphrasis (euphemism)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Periphrasis

Riffaterre’s hypogram (i.e., paragram or anagram, or hidden text within text)
http://www.signosemio.com/riffaterre/a_generation.asp

Richard Rorty and New Pragmatism
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Rorty

Danse macabre
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Danse_Macabre

figure poem (i.e., pattern poem)
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/446811/pattern-poetry

Suspension of disbelief, als ob
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suspension_of_disbelief
http://www.faqs.org/theories/Al-An/Als-Ob.html

avant-garde
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avant-garde

Paradigms and Syntagms
http://www.aber.ac.uk/media/Documents/S4B/sem03.html

Thomas Kuhn: paradigm, paradigm shift
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Kuhn
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paradigm
http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/thomas-kuhn/

and Keats’s negative capability
http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=766

-Josh Wolfenstein

Anonymous said...

Oh, and here's a good summary of N. Frye's ideas. Pay close attention to his four types of fiction.

http://www.michaelbryson.net/academic/frye.html

Josh Meteless

Anonymous said...

Add these to your list:

Gianni Vattimo, on "weak thought."

Henry Louis Gates, Jr. :
http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=4046029233444941773&ei=6hhiSeOUHYOMwgPXtoycAg&q=%22henry+louis+gates%22&hl=en

Edmund Husserl and Phenomenology: http://jp.youtube.com/watch?v=MWrKbIT6pmo

-Sarah

Beholdmyswarthyface said...

Add to this the following entry on Peter Brooks, from his book Reading For the Plot :
http://www.cla.purdue.edu/academic/engl/theory/narratology/modules/brooksplotmainframe.html