Friday, December 2, 2016

Study Guide: Dazai Osamu “Run, Melos” (1940)

Study Guide: Dazai Osamu “Run, Melos” (1940)

Study Guide: Dazai Osamu “Run, Melos” (1940)

Original: 走れメロス(1940)
Translation: “Run, Melos” (tr. McCarthy 1988; purchase here)

Dazai Osamu 太宰治 (1909-1948): Dazai Osamu, whose real name was Tsushima Shūji, was born in the town of Kanagi in Aomori Prefecture, where his father was an important landowner. Dazai was one of eleven children in a large extended family; his mother’s weak constitution caused him to be placed in the care of an aunt whom Dazai for a long time assumed was his mother. He had excellent grades in primary school and junior high school, when he began to dream of becoming a writer. His high school years seem to have been less happy, but he and some friends put out a little magazine for which he regularly wrote stories. Dazai left for Tokyo in 1930 to study in the French Literature department at the University of Tokyo. He also took part in some relatively innocuous illegal activities on behalf of the Communist Party. Also in 1930, Dazai made the first of several attempts at a lovers’ suicide (he had already made a solitary suicide attempt in 1929). In November of that year, he and a Ginza bar hostess tried to drown themselves in the ocean at Kamakura, but while the woman died Dazai was rescued by a fishing boat, leaving Dazai with a strong sense of guilt. In 1935, after being forced to leave Tokyo University and failing a test for employment, Dazai tried to hang himself, but this attempt also proved unsuccessful. In 1937, after Dazai’s discovery that his wife had had previous lovers, they both took sleeping medicine, but neither one died. Given this personal turmoil, it is small wonder that suicide became a major motif in Dazai’s novels. Stories written during this period include “Dōke no hana” (The Flowers of Buffoonery, 1935), “Gyakkō” (Against the Current, 1935), “Kyōgen no kami” (The God of Farce, 1936), and those published in his 1936 collection Bannen (Declining Years). In 1939, Dazai married Ishihara Michiko, to whom he was introduced by his mentor Ibuse Masuji, and entered a new period in his life. During this time, he freed himself from his self-appointed task of serving as a model of vice and achieved a harmony of sorts between his career as a writer and his real life. His collection Fugaku hyakkei (The Hundred Views of Fuji, 1939) was one major outcome. Wartime works included Udaijin Sanetomo (Minister of the Right Sanetomo, 1943), Tsugaru (1944), Pandora no hako (Pandora’s Box, 1945-46), and the delightful Otogizōshi (Fairy Tales, 1945). After the war, Dazai wrote numerous stories set in the postwar milieu. Chief among these were Bion no tsuma (Villon’s Wife, 1947), Shayō (The Setting Sun, 1947), and Dazai’s last novel, Ningen shikkaku (No Longer Human, 1948). The postwar period was a dark time for Dazai, the central theme of his works seeming to become the need to pass judgment on the ugly side of the Japanese character and his own egoism. This led him back to suicidal thoughts, and on June 13, 1948, he finally succeeded in drowning himself in the Tamagawa Canal with yet another young woman, leaving behind an unfinished novel titled (in English) Goodbye. Dazai’s career as a professional novelist thus spanned only the years from 1933 to 1948. Even so, his works continue to be enormously popular with young readers in particular, perhaps because of Dazai’s overriding concern with the search for meaning in life and the nature of truth in human affairs. (Mark Jewel,

Study Questions

1.      Discuss the style/mode of narration (i.e., point of view, focalization, pacing, objective/subjective methods, use of interior monologue, use of metaphors/similes, linear or non-linear plot, use of both “showing” and “telling,” etc.). Cite specific examples in your answers.

2.      Describe the setting. In what sort of world is the story set? Why do you think Dazai chose to rewrite this ancient legend? Was he trying to tell us something about his contemporary world? Explain.

3.      Identity and describe each of the characters. What abstract ideas/ideals does each represent? Explain.

4.      Write a one-paragraph summary of the story in your own words. Include only constitutive events.

5.      What is/are the main conflict(s)/theme(s) in the story? (Hint: What is the story trying to tell us about good/evil, righteousness, faith, love, trust, loyalty, nihilism, doubt, virtue ethics, etc.?)

6.      Examine the relationship between Dazai’s story and Friedrich Schiller’s poem (which is based on the Greek legend of Damon and Pythias; see below). What is “Dazai-esque” about Dazai’s version? What elements does he add that are not found in earlier versions? What does he omit?

“The Hostage” (Die Bürgschaft, 1799)
by Friedrich Schiller

Damon, with a dagger in his robe,
Crept up to Dionysius, the tyrant;
Whose attendants fell in slumber.
“What do you seek with that dagger? Speak!”
The angry voice challenged him.
“To free the city from the tyrant!”
“That you will answer upon the cross.”

“I am,” he rejoined, “prepared to die
And ask not for my life,
But grant me mercy,
I beseech you for three days’ time,
Until my sister is wed to her husband,
I leave you my friend as hostage,
Should I flee, you may strangle him.”

Then the king smiled with an angry mien
And after brief deliberation spoke:
“I’ll grant you three days.
But know this! If they pass by, this deadline,
Without your return to me,
Then he will be impaled in your stead,
Though the penalty be intended for you.”

So he went to his friend: “The king ordains,
That I atone with my life upon the cross
For my offending attempt,
Though he grants me three days’ time,
That I may see my sister married,
Provided that you stand as my guarantor
Until I come to dissolve the bond.”

And silently the true friend embraced him
And he delivered himself up to the tyrant,
As his friend departed.
And before the third dawn rose,
He had quickly united his sister with her betrothed,
And rushed home with a burdened soul,
In order not to miss the deadline.

Then great rains ceaselessly poured,
Torrents coursed down from the mountains,
The creeks and streams swelled
And so he came with his walking stick to the shore
And found the bridge swept away by
The thundering, rampaging waters crushing
The collapsing arches of the vault.

Irreconcilable, he wandered at the water’s edge
As far as he searched and peered
His voice, shouting, sending
Found no voice echoing from the safer shore
Which would bring him to the hoped-for land,
No boatsman would launch his ferry
And the wild stream became like a sea.

He sank to the shore and wept and cried,
Raising his hands to Zeus:
“Hold back the rage of these waters!
The hours rush by, the sun stands
Now at midday, and when it sets
If I cannot reach the city,
Then my friend will perish in my stead!”

Still the water’s fury rises from anew,
One wave rises after the next,
One hour passes after the next,
Anxiety at last presses him to a courageous act,
And he flings himself into the surging flood
Seizing the current with his powerful arms,
And a God takes pity upon him.

He reaches the other shore and hastens forth,
Thanking the God his savior,
When out of the darkened lair of the forest
Emerged a horde of robbers,
Blocking his way, and sensing murder
Preventing him in his haste
With a cudgel menacingly swung.

“What do you want?” he cried, paled by fear,
“I have nothing to give but my life,
And that I owe the king!”
And with that he snatched the club from the closest of the band,
“For the sake of my friend, have mercy!”
And with three powerful blows he struck,
Dealing death, as the others fled.

And the sun radiates its glowing fire,
He collapses sinking his knee
Drained by relentless exertion
“You have saved me mercifully from the hand of robbers,
From the flood you have rescued me to the holy land,
To what end?—that here I should perish miserably
Leaving the friend who loves me to die!”

But listen! Then it bubbled forth, silver-clear,
Close by a trickling sound,
And quietly he paused to listen,
And from the rocks, evanescent quickly
Sprang forth murmuring a living source,
And joyously it stooped down
Bringing refreshment to the burning limbs.

And the sun cut through the green branches
Painting gigantic shadows upon the
Dazzling mats of the trees,
And two travelers he espied upon the road,
Scurrying fleet of foot past him,
And then he heard them utter the words:
“Now he will be crucified!”

Despair put wings upon his feet,
The woes tormented him -
There, reflected in the evening sun,
From far, the battlements of Syracuse.
And Philostratus approached him,
The trustworth guardian of the house,
He understands in horror the ruler.

“Turn back! You can’t save your friend.
Save your own life!
He will suffer death, no matter.
From hour to hour he awaits
Your return with an aspirant soul
Your bold faith will not spare
Him the tyrant’s contempt.”

“It is too late, no savior will now
Appear welcome to him,
Yet death may unite me with my friend.
The tyrant will not be able to boast that
One friend failed in his duty to the other,
He will have a double sacrifice
And will witness love and fidelity.”

As the sun sets, he stands at the gate
And sees the cross already raised,
Surrounded by a gawking crowd,
His friend already being hoisted by a cord,
And powerfully he breaks through the thick crowd:
“Executioner, strangle me!” he shouts,
“I am here, the one for whom he stands hostage!”

And shock seized the assembled crowd,
As the two held each other in their arms,
Crying for pain and joy.
No eye was without tears,
And the wondrous tale is relayed to the king,
Who, feeling a human stirring,
Quickly had them brought before the throne.

He gazed upon them long in amazement,
And then spoke: “You have succeeded,
You have turned my heart,
In truth, fidelity is no idle delusion,
So accept me also as your friend,
I would be – grant me this request –
The third in your band!”

Translated by Scott Horton




しかし、わかっているだろうな! お前が戻って来る前に










すると、ほら! 銀色に輝く水が








Sunday, October 2, 2016

Study Guide: Bai Juyi’s “A Song of Unending Sorrow” (Chang hen ge 長恨歌, 806 CE)


Study Guide: Bai Juyi’s “A Song of Unending Sorrow” (Chang hen ge 長恨歌, 806 CE)

*For the original text, an English translation, and a Japanese translation, click here.

Principle Characters (*Note: Not all appear in poem)

1. Yang Guifei 楊貴妃 (719–756): Real name, Yang Yuhuan 楊玉環; renowned beauty of Chinese history; of low birth; marries Emperor Xuanzong’s son; later becomes Daoist nun, taking name Taizhen 太真; becomes “favored concubine” (guifei) of Emperor Xuanzong; adopts general An Lushan as her son; blamed by imperial guard for An Lushan Rebellion and executed.

2. Emperor Xuanzong of Tang 唐玄宗 (685–762; reign: 712–756): Wise, enlightened emperor of Tang; in his later years, he becomes more interested in art, music, love—and specifically, Yang Guifei—than in governing the realm; also known as Emperor Ming of Tang 唐明皇.

3. An Lushan 安禄山 (703–757): Chinese general of Persian and Turkish descent; adopted by Consort Yang; leads rebellion, proclaims himself emperor; rebellion eventually suppressed, and he is executed by his own son.

4. Yang Guozhong 楊國忠 (dates unknown): Consort Yang’s cousin; rival of Courtesan Yang’s brother.

5. Gao Lishi 高力士 (684–762): Powerful eunuch official (宦官 huànguān) in Emperor’s court; carries out execution of Courtesan Yang according to some accounts.

6. Li Mao: Yang Guifei’s husband; Prince of Shou and son of Emperor Xuanzong and Consort Wu

Key Names and Terms

1. Bai Juyi 白居易 (772–846): Renowned mid-Tang poet; devout Buddhist; exiled to Chang’an in 815 for criticism of government; promoted yuefu 樂府 poetic style.

2. Tang Dynasty 唐朝 (618–907): Golden age in history of Chinese culture, particularly poetry; often divided into four periods: early Tang, high Tang, mid Tang, and late Tang.

3. Chang’an 長安: Capital of Tang Dynasty and main residence of Emperor; later called Xi’an 西安.

4. Chengdu 成都: Major city in southwest China (Sichuan province), to which Emperor flees following the rebellion.

5. An Lushan Rebellion 安禄山の乱: Rebellion led by Turkic general An Lushan in 755, causing Emperor Xuanzong and his court to flee towards Chengdu.

6. Daoism 道教: Religious and philosophical tradition of ancient China; emphasizes living in harmony with the “dao” and according to “nature” 自然; arose in opposition to Confucianism 儒教Laozi’s Tao Te Ching 道德經 and Zhuang Zhous Zhuangzi 莊子 are usually cited as its foundational texts.

7. Mount Penglai 蓬萊(/仙島/): One of several legendary mountain islands of Chinese mythology, where the Eight Immortals 八仙 are said to dwell; others include Fāngzhàng 方丈 and Yíngzhōu 瀛洲.

8. Dance of Rainbow Skirt Feathered Dress 霓裳羽衣舞: A song and dance originally from Central Asia, brought to Chang’an via Silk Road, and said to be arranged by Emperor Xuanzong and choreographed by Yang Guifei sometime between 718 and 720.

9. Eunuchs 宦官 (huànguān): Castrated court officials; full castration was required of all male imperial servants, officials, and advisors.

10. The Pear Garden 梨園 (Líyuán): Royal acting and musical academy, founded during Tang dynasty by Emperor Xuanzong; its actors were known as “children of the Pear Garden” (梨園弟子).

11. Luoyang 洛陽: The “eastern capital” during the Tang Dynasty; second largest city in world at the time, after Chang’an; Empress Wu Zetian 武則天 (624–705) moved the capital here during her reign.

12. Mawei Slope 馬嵬坡: Slope west of Chang’an where Consort Yang was executed.

13. “Seventh day of the seventh month” 七月七日: Refers to the romantic legend of the cowherd and the weaver girl, represented by the stars Altair and Vega; separated by the Milky Way, the two lovers meet only once a year—on the seventh day of the seventh lunar month—when they cross the heavens on a bridge of magpies; both the Qixi festival 七夕節 in China and Tanabata festival 七夕 in Japan are derived from this legend.

Study Questions

1. How does Bai Juyi depict Yang Guifei? What metaphors/similes does he use when describing her? Is she a sympathetic character? Or a conspiring, traitorous enemy of the state? Cite specific passages to support your answer. You may also want to compare this depiction with other Yang Guifei depictions.

2. Discuss the execution scene. Why/how is she executed? Why doesn’t the emperor intervene to prevent her death?

3. Discuss the Emperor’s behavior and mental state in the aftermath of her death. How does the poet convey this?

4. How is the passage of time conveyed in the poem? Explain, citing specific passages.

5. Describe the Daoist priest and his special assignment. What supernatural powers does he possess?

6. Where does the priest search? Where does he eventually find her? What is the significance of Penglai Mountain/Island 蓬莱仙島 in the Sino-Japanese tradition?

7. Describe Yang Guifei’s condition and living quarters when the Daoist priest finds her.

8. What two keepsakes (katami) does Courtesan Guifei give to the priest to take back with him? What message does she send for the Emperor? Explain the significance of these. What secret pledge did they make years ago?

9. What do you think Bai Juyi’s point was in writing this poem? Does the poem contain a didactic purpose? Explain.

10. The legend of Yang Guifei appears repeatedly throughout the Chinese and Japanese literary traditions, from antiquity to present. Make a list of all the works (e.g., novels, plays, anime, manga, TV shows, etc.) that draw from this legend (below are some). Explain the relation of each to the original legend.

Further Reading: Some Later Works Inspired by Yang Guifei Legend

1.Yōkihi monogatari 楊貴妃物語. English translation in “The Consort and the Warrior. Yokihi Monogatari” Masako Nakagawa Graham Monumenta Nipponica Vol. 45, No. 1 (Spring, 1990), pp. 1-26 (
2.Genji monogatari 源氏物語, especially Chapter 1
3.Wakan rōei shū 和漢朗詠集
4.Konjaku monogatari shū 今昔物語集
5.Heike monogatari 平家物語
6. Kara monogatari 唐物語
7. Toshiyori Zuinō 俊頼髄脳
8. Taiheiki 太平記
9. Isei shū 伊勢集
10. Konpaku Zenchiku 金春禅竹 Yōkihi 楊貴妃 (Noh drama)
11. Sakaguchi Ango 坂口安吾 “In the Forest, Under Cherries in Full Bloom” (tr. Rubin) 桜の森の満開の下
12. Tanizaki Jun’ichirō Chijin no ai 痴人の愛人 (Naomi, trns. Chambers)
13. Tanizaki Jun’ichirō The Secret History of the Lord of Musashi.
14. Tanizaki Jun’ichirō “The Tattooer”
15. Tanizaki Jun’ichirō Portrait of Shunkin
16. Tanizaki Jun’ichirō Captain Shigemoto’s Mother
17. Tanizaki Jun’ichirō Diary of a Mad Old Man
18. Mishima Yukio 志賀寺上人の恋
19. Inoue Yasushi 井上靖 Yōkihi-den 楊貴妃伝
20. Chen Hong (early 9th c.) “An Account to Go with the ‘Song of Lasting Pain.’ “ (長恨歌伝); translation in the Yang Guifei section in Owen’s anthology
21. “Interlude: Xuanzong and Yang the Prized Consort” in An Anthology of Chinese Literature, Stephen Owen, ed. and trans. New York: Norton, 1996. Pages 441-457.

Thursday, July 7, 2016

物語・小説を読むときに留意すべき13の重要事項 / 13 Things to Consider When Reading Narrative












11.作品の形式は何か。(bildungsroman, kunstlerroman, 告白、冒険(探求)物語、ピカレスク小説、夢物語、散文詩、百物語、日記、物語、歌物語、説話等)。作品の内容が形式によってどのように形成されているか、そしてその逆はどうか。


13 Things to Consider When Reading Narrative

1. Who/what is the narrator (first-person, third-person, neither)? How many?

2. Is the narrator “reliable” or “unreliable”? Can we trust what he says?

3. If third person, is he omniscient? Limited omniscient? Where is the focalization point?

4. Does the narrator primarily “show” (mimesis, dialogue, free indirect discourse, interior monologue, etc.) or “tell” (ji no bun)? (Eg. “Yabu no naka”: all “show” and no “tell.”)

5. What is the relationship between the narrator and the events/characters that he describes?

6. When was the work written? What is the historical/literary context? Is the work a reaction/response to certain events/trends?

7. Consider the style of the work. Is it primarily literary/poetic/metaphoric/symbolic/figurative? Or it is primarily representational/realistic/transparent?

8. Are there symbols/images/metaphors in the work? What is their effect? Particular/universal?

9. Always make a clear distinction between the author and the narrator; they are not the same.

10. Who is the implied reader/audience? How does the narrator address the audience? Confession? Argument?

11. What is the form(s) of the work? (E.g. bildungsroman, künstlerroman, confession, quest story, picaresque novel, dream narrative, prose poem, hyaku monogatari, diary, monogatari, uta monogatari, setsuwa, etc.). How is the content shaped by the form(s), and vice versa?

12. How does desire function in the work? Who desires what? How are desire and narrative related? How is the reader’s desire involved?

13. Do the characters correspond to certain archetypes? Are these character types particular, universal, or both?

Thursday, June 30, 2016

Note to Self:Buy these Books at 古本まゆ and 千代の介書店

Nagoya is not the greatest place to live for bookish folk, but I have managed to find two excellent used bookstores in the area where I live: ① 古本まゆ ② 千代の介書店 。I have some money left over from last year's research funds, so I sent the two bookstores' owners the following list, saying I'd buy whatever they had. The list includes general works (standard literary histories, dictionaries, multi-volume compendiums, etc.) that anyone interested in modern Jpn lit should have, or have access to.  If there's anything you think I should add, please let me know... *Note: Some of the publishing info is incomplete/possibly inaccurate.... 


*All sources were published in Tokyo unless otherwise noted.

Andō 1994
Andō Hiroshi. Jiishiki no shōwa bungaku: genshō to shite no ‘watashi. Shibundō, 1994.

Chiba 2003
Chiba Shunji, ed, et al. Nihon kindai bungaku hyōronsen: Meiji Taishō hen. Iwanami shoten, 2003.
Chiba 2004
Chiba Shunji, ed. Nihon kindai bungaku hyōronsen: Shōwa hen. Iwanami shoten, 2004.
Chiba 1998
Chiba Sen’ichi. Modanizumu no hikaku bungakuteki kenkyū. Ōfū, 1998.
Chikuma 1966-
Xx, ed. Gendai Nihon shisō taikei. X volumes. Chikuma shobō, 1966- .
Chikuma 19xx
Xx, ed. Gendai Nihon bungaku taikei. About 100 volumes. 19xx, Chikuma shobō.
Chikuma 1958-
Xx, ed. Gendai Nihon bungaku zenshū. Xx volumes. Chikuma shobō. 1958-19xx.

Fujimura 1950-1953
Fujimura Tsukuru, ed. Nihon bungaku daijiten. Rev. ed. 8 vols. Shinchōsha, 1950-1953.

Hamada 1993
Hamada Gi’ichirō, ed. Ōta Nampo. In Shin Nihon koten bungaku taikei. Iwanami shoten, 1993.
Hamada 1968
Hamada Gi’ichirō. Edo senryū jiten. Tōkyōdō, 1968.
Hasegawa 1969
Hasegawa Izumi. Kindai Nihon bungaku hyōronshi. Yūseidō, 1969.
Hasegawa 1958
Hasegawa Nyozekan. Gendai bungei hyōronshū. In Gendai Nihon bungaku zenshū (1958)
Hashikawa 1970
Hashikawa Bunzō. Kindai nihon seiji shisōshi. Yūhikaku, 1970.
Hijikata 1973
Hijikata Tei’ichi. Kindai Nihon bungaku hyōronshi. Hōsei daigaku shuppankyoku. 1973.
Hirano et. al. 1956
Hirano Ken, Odagiri Hideo, Yamamoto Kenkichi, eds. Gendai Nihon bungaku ronsō shi, 3 vols. Miraisha. 1956.
Hirano 1963
Hirano Ken. Shōwa bungakushi. Chikuma shobō, 1963.
Hirano 1974
Hirano Ken, et. al., eds. Gendai Nihon bungaku ronsō shi. 3 volumes. Miraisha, 1974.
Hisamatsu 1932-1947
Hisamatsu Sen’ichi. Nihon bungaku hyōronshi (Kinsei hen, kindai hen).
Hisamatsu 1975
Hisamatsu Sen'ichi, ed. Nihon bungakushi. Shibundo, 1975 (expanded new edition). 8 vols.
Honda 1971
Honda Shūgo. (Sōhō) Senji sengo no senkōsha-tachi. Keisō shobō, 1971.
Honda 1954
Honda Shūgo. Monogatari sengo bungakushi. Shinchōsha. 1960.
Honda 1954
Honda Shūgo. Shirakaba-ha no bungaku, Kōdansha, 1954.
Honda 1957
Honda Shūgo. Tenkō bungakuron. Miraisha, 1957.

Ichiko, et. al 2002
Ichiko Teiji, Kubota Jun, et. al.Nihon bungaku dainenpyō. Ōfûsha. 2002.
Ichiko 1983-1985
Ichiko Teiji et al. Nihon Koten Bungaku Daijiten Henshū Iinkai, ed. Nihon koten bungaku daijiten. 6 vols. Iwanami Shoten, 1983-1985.
Ienaga 1968
Ienaga Saburō. Taiheiyō sensō. Iwanami shoten, 1968.
Ikeuchi 1991-1995
Ikeuchi Osamu, ed. Nihon gensō bungaku shūsei. Kokusho kankōkai, 1991-1995.
Inoue, et. al. 1989-1990
Inoue Yasushi, Yamamoto Kenkichi, Nakamura Mitsuo, et al., eds. Shōwa bungaku zenshū. Shōgakukan, 1989-1990.
Isogai 1955
Isogai Hideo. Shōwa bungaku sakka kenkyū. Yanagihara shoten, 1955.
Isogai 1980
_____. Senzen sengo no sakka to sakuhin. Meiji shoin, 1980.
Ishida 1983
Ishida Takeshi, Nihon no shakai kagaku, Tokyo daigaku shuppankai, 1983.
Isoda 1969
Isoda Kōichi. Bungaku, kono kamen tekina mono. Keisō shobō. 1969.
Isoda 1988                                         
Isoda Kōichi, ed. Shinchō Nihon bungaku jiten. Shinchōsha, 1988.
Isogai 1980
Isogai Hideo. Senzen sengo no sakka to sakuhin. Meiji shoin, 1980.
Itō 1962
Itō Yoshio, et. al., ed. Waka bungaku daijiten. Meiji shoin, 1962.
Itō 1981
Itō Sei, et al. Shinchō Nihon bungaku shōjiten. Shinchōsha, 1981.
Itō Sei, et al., ed.
Itō Sei, et al., ed. Nihon gendai bungakushi. Kōdansha, 1979.
Iwanami 1958-
Xx, ed. Nihon koten bungaku taikei. 100 volumes. Iwanami Shoten, 1958-.

Kadokawa 1969-1974
Xx, ed. Nihon kindai bungaku taikei. Kadokawa shoten. 60 vols. 1969-1974.
Kanaya [xx] 1970
Nihon no shisō (12): Ogyū Sorai. Chikuma shobō, 1970.
Karatani 1990
Karatani Kojin, ed. Kindai Nihon no hihyô. Fukutake shoten. 1990. 4 vols.
Katō 2001
Katō, T., et. al. Nihonshi sōgō nenpyō. Yoshikawa kōbunkan, 2001.
Kawazoe 1972
Kawazoe Kunimoto, ed. Kindai hyōronshū 1. Vol. 57 of Nihon kindai bungaku taikei series. Kadokawa bungaku shoten. 1972.
Kihira 1941
Kihira Tadayoshi. Nihon teki naru mono. 1941.
Kokuritsu kokkai toshokan 1959
Kokuritsu kokkai toshokan, ed. Meiji Taishō Shōwa hon'yaku bungaku mokuroku. Kazama shobō, 1952.
Koten no Jiten Hensan Iinkai 1986
Koten no Jiten Hensan Iinkai, ed. Koten no jiten. 15 vols. Kawade shobō shinsha, 1986.
Konishi 1992
Konishi Jin’ichi. Nihon bungeishi. 5 volumes. Kōdansha, 1985-1992.
Kobayashi 1969
      Kobayashi Hideo, ed. Gendai nihon bungakkan: Ishikawa Jun (31). Bungei Shunjusha.
Kubota 2007
Kubota Jun, ed. Iwanami Nihon koten bungaku jiten. Iwanami Shoten, 2007.

Maeno 2000
Maeno Naoki, ed. Tōshisen. Iwanami, 2000.
Maruyama 1952
Nihon seiji shisōshi kenkyū. Tōkyō daigaku shuppankai, 1952.
Matsumoto 1977
Matsumoto Yukio. Genseki no shōgai to eikaishi. Mokujisha, 1977.
Miyoshi [et al] 1987
Miyoshi Yukio, Yamamoto Kenkichi, Yoshida Sei’ichi, eds. Nihon bungakushi jiten, kingendaihen. Kadokawa shoten, 1987.
Miyoshi 19xx
Miyoshi Yukio. Nihon no kindai shōsetsu, Vol 2, Tokyo daigaku suppankai. Xx.
Mizuno 1978-1988
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