Friday, May 1, 2015

Burton Watson Named Winner of 2015 PEN/Ralph Manheim Medal for Translation

Burton Watson, "the inventor of classical East Asian poetry for our time," named winner of 2015 PEN American Center Medal For Translation:http://bit.ly/1ztba5t 。 America's greatest poet, John Ashbery, who discovered B. Watson's [and H. Sato’s] anthology of Japanese poetry From the Country of Eight Islands in 1981, said of the collection: "[It] has been my pillow book since it came out. It is one of the greatest books of poetry I know." Also, according to Wiki, Watson has lived in Japan since 1972;I had no idea;is this common knowledge?

Major Publications:
  • Po Chu-i: Selected Poems. New York: Columbia University Press, 2000.
  • Masaoka Shiki: Selected Poems. New York: Columbia University Press, 1997.
  • The Vimalakirti Sutra. New York: Columbia University Press, 1997.
  • Letters of Nichire. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996.
  • Selected Poems of Su Tung-Po. Port Townsend, Wash.: Copper Canyon Press, 1994.
  • The Lotus Sutra. New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.
  • The Tso Chuan: Selections from China's Oldest Narrative History. New York: Columbia
       University Press, 1989.
  • Ssu-ma Ch’ien: the Historian & His Work. Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Microfilms
       International, 1985.
  • The Columbia Book of Chinese Poetry: from the Early Times to the
       13th Century
    . New York: Columbia University Press, 1984.
  • From the Country of Eight Islands: an Anthology of Japanese Poetry. Garden City, New
       York: Anchor Books, 1981.
  • Japanese Literature in Chinese. New York: Columbia University Press, 1975-1976. Courtier &
       Commoner in Ancient China. New York: Columbia University Press, 1974.
  • The Old Man Who Does As He Pleases: Selected Poetry and Prose of Lu Yu. New York:
       Columbia University Press, 1973.
  • Chinese Lyricism: Shih Poems from the 2nd to the 12th Century. New York: Columbia
       University Press, 1971.
  • Chinese Rhyme Prose: fu of Han & the Six Dynasties Period. New York: Columbia
       University Press, 1971.
  • The Complete Works of Chuang Tzu. New York: Columbia University Press, 1968.
  • An Introduction to Sung Poetry. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1967.
  • Basic Writings of Mo Tzu Hsun Tzu and Han Fei Tzu. New York: Columbia University Press,
       1967.
  • Su Tung-p’o: Selection from a Sung Dynasty Poet. New York: Columbia University Press,
       1965.
  • Cold Mountain 100 Poems. New York: Grove, 1962; Cape: London, 1970.
  • Early Chinese Literature. New York: Columbia University Press, 1962.
  • Records of The Grand Historian of China. New York: Columbia University Press, 1961.
       Records of the Grand Historian: Han Dynasty I & II; Qin dynasty. Hong Kong; New York:
       Renditions-Columbia University Press, 1993.
  • Thursday, April 30, 2015

    Benevolence (仁) Without Righteousness/Rectitude (義)

    Two students came to my office today and asked, in perfect unison:"Sensei, what are we to make of the philanthropy/charity done by the ruling classes?" I answered:"This is not to be commended; for they make war on the multitudes (economically and militarily) with one hand while offering tokens of charity with the other;as Confucius said, benevolence (仁) without righteousness/rectitude (義) is like a stream without water."

    Sunday, April 26, 2015

    Study Guide: Hagakure (In the Shadow of Leaves; 1709-1716)

    Morrison

    Study Guide: Hagakure (In the Shadow of Leaves; 1709-1716)

    *Japanese Text: Saiki Kazuma et al. eds., Mikawa monogatari, hagakure (Nihon shisō taikei Vol. 26). Iwanami shoten. 1974.
    *English Translation: The Secret Wisdom of the Samurai. Yamamoto Tsunetomo. Translated by Alexander Bennett. Tuttle Publishing. 2014. (Click here to purchase.)

    Hagakure has come to be known as a foundational text of bushidō, the “way of the warrior.” Dictated between 1709 and 1716 by a retired samurai, Yamamoto Tsunetomo (1659-1719), to a young retainer, Tashirō Tsuramoto (1678-1748), Hagakure was less a rigorous philosophical exposition than the spirited reflections of a seasoned warrior. Although it became well known in the 1930s, when a young generation of nationalists embraced the supposed spirit of bushidō, Hagakure was not widely circulated in the Tokugawa period beyond Saga domain on the southern island of Kyushu, Yamamoto Tsunetomo’s home. (Source: Asia for Educators, Columbia University)

    Study Questions

    Answer each of the following.

    1. Discuss the famous opening passage. What is the connection between bushidō and death?

    I have found that the Way of the samurai is death. This means that when you are compelled to choose between life and death, you must quickly choose death. There is nothing more to it than that. You just make up your mind and go forward. The idea that to die without accomplishing your purpose is undignified and meaningless, just dying like a dog, is the pretentious bushidō of the city slickers of Kyoto and Osaka. In a situation when you have to choose between life and death, there is no way to make sure that your purpose will be accomplished. All of us prefer life over death, and you can always find more reasons for choosing what you like over what you dislike. If you fail and you survive, you are a coward. This is a perilous situation to be in. If you fail and you die, people may say your death was meaningless or that you were crazy, but there will be no shame. Such is the power of the martial way. When every morning and every evening you die anew, constantly making yourself one with death, you will obtain freedom in the martial way, and you will be able to fulfill your calling throughout your life without falling into error.”[1]

    武士道と云ふは、死ぬ事と見付けたり。二つ二つの場にて、早く死方(しぬかた)に片付くばかり也。別に子細なし。胸すわつて進む也。圖に當らず、犬死などいふ事は、上方風(かみがたふう)の打上(うちあがり)たる武道なるべし。二つ二つの場にて、圖に當るやうにする事は不レ及(およばざる)事也。我人(われひと)、生(いく)る方がすき也。多分すきの方(かた)に理が付くべし。若(もし)圖に迦(はず)れて生きたらば、腰ぬけ也。此境(このさかい)危き也。圖に迦れて死にたらば、氣違にて恥には不レ成(ならず)。是が武道の丈夫也。毎朝毎夕、改めては死々(しにしに)、常住死身に成りて居る時は、武道に自由を得、一生落度(おちど)なく家職を仕課(しおお)すべき也。[2]

    2. Does the author believe that the bushi must accomplish his mission before resigning himself to death? Explain.

    3. What does the author mean when he says “make yourself one with death” and “live as though already dead”?

    4. How does the author define the ideal retainer (家臣) or “man of service” (hōkōnin)?

    5. Explain the concept of ichinen (single-mindedness). How is it different from funbetsu (discriminating thought)? Which of the two does the author privilege?

    6. Describe the concept of shinigurui (literally, “rushing madly toward death”)?

    7. Explain the author’s notion of the “thought-moment”? How should the bushi position himself vis-à-vis this thought-moment?

    8. Explain the author’s view of women. Cite evidence from the text.

    9. What values does Yamamoto Tsunetomo consider most important for a bushi? How does he think these values should be instilled?

    10. What philosophical or religious influences can you find in the text? Is this a Confucian/neo-Confucian perspective? A Shinto perspective? A Buddhist perspective?

    11. Is bushidō an example of an “invented tradition”? Explain.

    12. The notion of bushidō was used as military propaganda at various points in Japan’s modern period. How does Yamamoto’s text lend itself to use by militarists?

    13. Describe the bushi’s role in society after the unification of Japan in 1590 and the establishment of the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1600. What happened to the samurai class (shizoku) in the early modern period (i.e. Edo period)? In the modern period (i.e. post-Meiji)?

    Further Reading/Listening

    1. Oleg Benesch. Inventing the Way of the Samurai: Nationalism, Internationalism, and Bushido in Modern Japan (Oxford Press; 2014). *Click here to purchase.
    2. Sagara Tōru ed., Kōyōgunkan, gorinsho, hagakure-shū (Nihon no shisō Vol 9). Chikuma shobō, 1968.
    3. Saiki Kazuma et al. eds., Mikawa monogatari, hagakure (Nihon shisō taikei Vol. 26). . Iwanami shoten, 1974.
    4. Hagakure zenshū. Gogatsu Shobō. 1978.
    5. Yamamoto Tsunetomo; Ōkuma Miyoshi ed., Hagakure: gendaiyaku.
    6. Mishima Yukio. Hagakure nyūmon (A Primer on The Hagakure). 1967.
    7. Yamamoto Tsunetomo. Hagakure zenshū. Gogatsu shobō, 1978
    8. YouTube Reading: Bushido: The Soul of Japan by Inazo Nitobe - Chapter 1/17: Bushido as an Ethical System: http://bit.ly/1DM0utT







    [1] From Sources of Japanese Tradition, edited by Wm. Theodore de Bary, Carol Gluck, and Arthur L. Tiedemann, 2nd ed., vol. 2 (New York: Columbia University Press, 2005), 476-478.
    [2] (底本)国立国会図書館蔵餅木鍋島家本

    Study Guide: Hagakure (in the Shadow of Leaves)

    Tuesday, April 14, 2015

    Two Lectures on Nihonjin-ron / anti-Nihonjin-ron

    I've stayed away from questions of "Nihonjin-ron" in the past simply because I don't care about what the average Daisuke [or Joe] thinks about what Japan is, but I was so taken aback yesterday by some of the comments from students in my class that I now feel obliged to rectify all their misconceptions... Here are two great guides to Nihonjin and anti-Nihonjin, from Meiji Gakuin University's Tom Gill: (1) Nihonjin-ron Lecture and (2) Anti-Nihonjin-ron Lecture。For more lectures by Professor Gill, click here

    Thursday, March 26, 2015

    Matsuda Aoko in 『Pleiades: A Journal of New Writing』

    Received a request from University of Central Missouri's Pleiades: A Journal of New Writing to translate a Matsuda Aoko 松田青子 story of my choice for their upcoming issue; I know nothing about this writer; they say her writing is "concerned with impersonal corporatism presented in a surreal light, with a Kafkaesque tone";if anyone has read her, please give me some recommendations; her 『英子の森』 is said to be quite good。松田青子の作品を一つ選び英訳せよという依頼が今米国某大学の『Pleiades』文学雑誌から入ってきたが松田青子は私にとって初耳の作家なのでお薦めの作品があったら誰か教えて下さい。短編集『英子の森』が評価されているらしいのでその中のどれかがいいかな。

    Click here to read translated excerpts from her new novella Stackable/s (Sutakkingu kannō; 2013).

    Wednesday, March 25, 2015

    Oguma Eiji : "Japan’s 1968: A Collective Reaction to Rapid Economic Growth in an Age of Turmoil"

    造反有理 (造反に理有り; "making rebellion is rational")。Great Japan Focus piece on Japan's 1968 by historian/sociologist Oguma Eiji, translated by friends N. Kapur, D. Boyd, S. Malissahttp://bit.ly/1FyPvKM 。I think I shall use this in a class or two as supplement to the stories of Murakami Haruki and others of his generation。